BackgroundIdentification of germline mutations in DNA repair genes has significant implications for the personalized treatment of individuals with prostate cancer (PrCa). ObjectiveTo determine DNA repair genes associated with localized PrCa in a diverse academic biobank and to determine genetic testing burden. Design, setting, and participantsA cross-sectional study of 2391 localized PrCa patients was carried out. Outcome measurements and statistical analysisGenetic ancestry and mutation rates (excluding somatic interference) in 17 DNA repair genes were determined in 1588 localized PrCa patients and 3273 cancer-free males. Burden testing within individuals of genetically determined European (EUR) and African (AFR) ancestry was performed between biobank PrCa cases and cancer-free biobank and gnomAD males. Results and limitationsAFR individuals with localized PrCa had lower DNA repair gene mutation rates than EUR individuals (1.4% vs 4.0%, p = 0.02). Mutation rates in localized PrCa patients were similar to those in biobank and gnomAD controls (EUR: 4.0% vs 2.8%, p = 0.15, vs 3.1%, p = 0.04; AFR: 1.4% vs 1.8%, p = 0.8, vs 2.1%, p = 0.5). Gene-based rare variant association testing revealed that only BRCA2 mutations were significantly enriched compared with gnomAD controls of EUR ancestry (1.0% vs 0.28%, p = 0.03). Of the participants, 21% and 11% met high-risk and very-high-risk criteria; of them, 3.7% and 6.2% had any germline genetic mutation and 1.0% and 2.5% had a BRCA2 mutation, respectively. Limitations of this study include an analysis of a relatively small, single-institution cohort. ConclusionsDNA repair gene germline mutation rates are low in an academic biobank cohort of localized PrCa patients, particularly among individuals of AFR genetic ancestry. Mutation rates in genes with published evidence of association with PrCa exceed 2.5% only in high-risk, very-high-risk localized, and node-positive PrCa patients. These findings highlight the importance of risk stratification in localized PrCa patients to identify appropriate patients for germline genetic testing. Patient summaryIn the majority of patients who develop localized prostate cancer, germline genetic testing is unlikely to reveal an inherited DNA repair mutation, regardless of race. High-risk features increase the possibility of a germline DNA repair mutation.

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