Open Forum Infectious Diseases | VOL. 9

Antiretroviral Drug Resistance in HIV Sequences from People who Inject Drugs and Men who have Sex with Men Across 21 Cities in India

Publication Date Sep 17, 2022


Abstract Introduction Drug-resistance testing is limited in public-sector HIV care in India, and there are few systematic samplings for prevalent drug resistance mutations (DRMs), particularly among men who have sex with men (MSM) and people who inject drugs (PWID). Methods We conducted genotypic resistance testing on 915 HIV sequences sampled from viremic self-reported antiretroviral therapy (ART) experienced and naïve PWID and MSM recruited from 21 cities across India 2016–2017. We analyzed factors associated with resistance using logistic regression and evaluated evidence for transmitted resistance using phylogenetic analyses. Results Of the 915 participants sequenced, median age was 31, 436 were MSM, and 191 were ART-experienced. Overall, 62.8% of ART-experienced participants and 14.4% of ART-naïve participants were found to have low-level resistance or higher to one or more classes of drugs. Prevalence of tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) resistance was 25.7% in ART-experienced participants and 1.11% in ART-naïve participants. The highest proportion of drug resistance was seen across nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI), and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) drugs, and resistance was significantly more common among MSM participants than PWID. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that 54.6% of ART-naïve par...


People Who Inject Drugs HIV Care In India Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Antiretroviral Drug Resistance Care In India Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate MSM Participants Non-nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Drugs Drug Resistance Mutations

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No potential conflict of interest was reported by the authors. The conception and design of the study, acquisition of data, analysis and interpretatio...

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