Fluorescein itself is a synthetic organic compound and a prominent member of the xanthene dye family. It exhibits strong fluorescence under ultraviolet (UV) or blue light excitation, making it widely used in various applications, including fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, immunoassays, and molecular biology techniques. One of the reasons fluorescein derivatives are highly valuable is their tunable fluorescence properties. Through chemical modifications of the fluorescein structure, different functional groups or substituents can be introduce, altering the compound's fluorescence characteristics such as emission wavelength, intensity, and photo stability. This flexibility allows for tailoring of fluorescent probes to specific experimental requirements, enhancing their utility in a range of scientific disciplines. Fluorescein derivatives also possess excellent antimicrobial and antioxidant activity. This review sheds light on the significant impact of fluorescein derivatives as biological active compounds, highlighting their potential in designing new therapeutic agents with antimicrobial properties. Additionally, their role as antioxidants is discussed. A major aspect covered in the review is the application of fluorescein derivatives as powerful cell imaging probes. Their unique fluorescent properties make them valuable tools for visualizing cellular structures and processes, opening up new possibilities for studying cellular dynamics and interactions.

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