International Journal of Molecular Sciences | VOL. 23

A Novel Cell-Based Model for a Rare Disease: The Tks4-KO Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line as a Frank-Ter Haar Syndrome Model System

Publication Date Aug 8, 2022


Tyrosine kinase substrate with four SH3 domains (Tks4) scaffold protein plays roles in cell migration and podosome formation and regulates systemic mechanisms such as adult bone homeostasis and adipogenesis. Mutations in the Tks4 gene (SH3PXD2b) cause a rare developmental disorder called Frank-Ter Haar syndrome (FTHS), which leads to heart abnormalities, bone tissue defects, and reduced adiposity. We aimed to produce a human stem cell-based in vitro FTHS model system to study the effects of the loss of the Tks4 protein in different cell lineages and the accompanying effects on the cell signalome. To this end, we used CRISPR/Cas9 (clustered, regularly interspaced, short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR associated (Cas9)) to knock out the SH3PXD2b gene in the HUES9 human embryonic stem cell line (hESC), and we obtained stable homo- and heterozygous knock out clones for use in studying the potential regulatory roles of Tks4 protein in embryonic stem cell biology. Based on pluripotency marker measurements and spontaneous differentiation capacity assays, we concluded that the newly generated Tks4-KO HUES9 cells retained their embryonic stem cell characteristics. We propose that the Tks4-KO HUES9 cells could serve as a tool for further cell differentiation studies to investigate the involvement of Tks4 in the complex disorder FTHS. Moreover, we successfully differentiated all of the clones into mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). The derived MSC cultures showed mesenchymal morphology and expressed MSC markers, although the expressio...


Frank-Ter Haar Syndrome Human Embryonic Stem Cell Line Expressed Mesenchymal Stem Cells Markers Mesenchymal Stem Cells Embryonic Stem Cell Embryonic Stem Cell Biology Knock Out Adult Bone Homeostasis Clustered, Regularly Interspaced, Short Palindromic Repeats Cell Maturation Processes

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