Abstract Water scarcity has led to significant efforts in the area of mathematical programming to deal with the water management of macroscopic systems. This paper presents a model based on Material Flow Analysis (MFA) that integrates two strategies for sustainable water management. On the one hand, the model allows finding an optimal water distribution network that uses rainwater harvesting technologies along with traditional sources. On the other hand, the model provides the configuration of an optimal water treatment system to further reduce water consumption as well as to satisfy environmental constraints. Our approach results in a multi-objective multi-period MINLP model which has been solved through the GAMS® modelling environment. An illustrative case study is used to show the scope of the proposed model and the significance of the results.

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