1. 1. The purpose of the study was to confirm whether a subtreshold dose of CCK-4 would enhance the vulnerability of healthy subjects to a 35% carbon dioxide challenge. 2. 2. 40 subjects, with no prior or present psychiatric disorder and in good physical health were challenged with a vital capacity breath of a 35% carbon dioxide 65% oxygen mixture, immediatly after an intravenous injection of 10 μg CCK-4 or placebo, according to a random order, double blind, separate group design 3. 3. Subjects reported significantly less anxiety and panic symptoms upon carbon dioxide after premedication with CCK-4 than after placebo. 4. 4. CCK-4 and carbon dioxide seem to inhibit rather than enhance each other's effects, possibly through an effect on different neurobiological systems.

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