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Association Between Multisensory Impairment and Depression Among Older Adults: A Population-Based Analysis.

In this study, we examine how impairments in vision, hearing, touch, and olfaction relate to depression in older adults, considering both individual and multisensory impairments (MSIs). Analysis of cross-sectional data from a longitudinal investigation involving black and white older adults aged 70 to 79 at enrollment. We studied 1640 black and white participants in the Health ABC study using complete sensory evaluation data from years 3 to 5. Our MSI assessment utilized data obtained for visual acuity, hearing perception, olfactory performance, and tactile function. We performed multivariable logistic regression analyses to examine the associations between the presence of individual and MSIs and depression which was defined as the presence of antidepressants prescribed for depression, or a Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale score of greater than 10. We observed a possible dose-response relationship between the number of sensory impairments and depression. In adjusted models, when compared to no impairments, vision (odds ratio [OR] = 1.45, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-1.93) and hearing impairments (OR = 1.49, 95% CI: 1.11-1.99) were significantly associated with depression, whereas olfaction (OR = 1.11, 95% CI: 0.83-1.47) and tactile impairments (OR = 1.28, 95% CI: 0.96-1.70) were not. Participants with 3 sensory impairments had a higher rate of depression (OR = 2.05, 95% CI: 1.22-3.54) compared to those without impairments, and this risk increased further for those with 4 sensory impairments (OR = 2.95, 95% CI: 1.48-5.88). The findings suggest that individuals with MSI represent a high-risk population for depression, warranting close monitoring to screen for depression. The study emphasizes the importance of considering multiple sensory impairments in the context of mental health and supports the early identification and monitoring of depression in this population.

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Scleral Thickness in Autosomal Dominant Best Vitelliform Macular Dystrophy.

To investigate the posterior and equatorial scleral thickness in patients with autosomal dominant Best disease, a condition that has chronic subretinal fluid. Retrospective study involving patients with Best disease and age-matched controls. Participants were evaluated with contact B-scan ultrasonography and enhanced depth imaging optical coherence tomography to evaluate scleral thickness in the posterior pole and equator. Univariate analysis and generalized estimating equations were used. Of 9 patients with genetically proven Best disease and 23 age-matched controls, there was no significant difference in the age or the gender proportion between groups. Subfoveal choroidal thickness and axial length were not significantly different between groups. Both posterior scleral (OD; 1.38mm vs. 0.89mm, P<.001 and OS; 1.39mm vs. 0.83mm, P<.001) and equatorial scleral (OD; 0.61mm vs. 0.42mm, P=.003, and OS; 0.55mm vs. 0.41mm, P=.017) thicknesses were much greater in cases as compared with controls. Multivariate analysis showed male sex and having Best disease were each significant predictors of posterior scleral thickness and Best disease was the sole significant predictor for equatorial scleral thickness. BEST1 gene may have a developmental role leading to having a thicker sclera, influencing disease manifestation, and contributing to the accumulation of subretinal fluid in Best disease.

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Inter-reader reproducibility of a radiographic grading system for usual interstitial pneumonitis validates its use as a surrogate endpoint in clinical trials

AbstractBackgroundThe primary purpose of this study was to assess the interreader reliability of a grading system for UIP based on the quantification of normal lung. This grading system considers each of the following lung regions: right upper and middle lobes, right lower lobe, left upper lobe, and left lower lobe. Each is assigned a grade based on the following: 0: 0% normal lung; 1: 1–49% normal lung; 2: 50–74% normal lung; 3: 75–89% normal lung; 4: 90–99% normal lung; 5: 100% normal lung. The secondary purpose was to compare the grades rendered by non-cardiothoracic subspecialty trained radiologists to grades established by cardiothoracic radiologists, which were considered the gold standard.MethodsChest CT images of patients were obtained by searching the radiology record system for the terms “usual interstitial pneumonia” and “UIP”. Each case was confirmed by radiologist review; pathology was not assessed given the small fraction of cases that underwent biopsy due to the high risk of complications in patients with fibrotic lung disease. Two cardiothoracic radiologists evaluated each CT and reached a consensus grade. Two different radiologists who were not subspecialty trained in cardiothoracic radiology independently graded each case. Spearman correlation analysis was performed to compare the two reader's grades as well as each reader's grade independently to the gold standard score.ResultsOur analysis demonstrated a strongly positive statistically significant interreader correlation coefficient (RS) = 0.7062, P &lt; 0.001. Our analysis of each reader compared to the gold standard demonstrated an Rs = 0.77559, P &lt; 0.001 and an RS = 0.69958, P &lt; 0.001 for readers 1 and 2, respectively, both representing statistically significant strongly positive correlations.ConclusionsThese results demonstrate strong interreader reproducibility and show that radiologists without subspecialty training in cardiothoracic radiology render grades that correlate strongly with those given by cardiothoracic radiologists. These findings support the use of this grading system for UIP both to monitor clinical progression and as a surrogate endpoint for antifibrotic drug trials.

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Psychiatric diagnoses are common after liver transplantation and are associated with increased health care utilization and patient financial burden.

Psychiatric disorders after liver transplantation (LT) are associated with worse patient and graft outcomes, which may be amplified by inadequate treatment. We aimed to characterize the burden of psychiatric disorders, treatment patterns, and associated financial burden among liver transplantation recipients (LTRs). IQVIA PharMetrics (R) Plus for Academics-a large health plan claims database representative of the commercially insured US population-was used to identify psychiatric diagnoses among adult LTRs and assess treatment. Multivariable logistic regression analysis identified factors associated with post-LT psychiatric diagnoses and receipt of pharmacotherapy. Patient financial liability was estimated using adjudicated medical/pharmacy claims for LTRs with and without psychiatric diagnoses. Post-LT psychiatric diagnoses were identified in 395 (29.5%) of 1338 LTRs, of which 106 (26.8%) were incident cases. Treatment varied, with 67.3% receiving pharmacotherapy, 32.1% psychotherapy, 21.0% combination therapy, and 21.5% no treatment. Among 340 LTRs on psychotropic medications before transplant, 24% did not continue them post-LT. Post-LT psychiatric diagnoses were independently associated with female sex, alcohol-associated liver disease (ALD), prolonged LT hospitalization (>2 wk), and pre-LT psychiatric diagnosis. Incident psychiatric diagnoses were associated with female sex, ALD, and prolonged LT hospitalization. Patients with a post-LT psychiatric diagnosis had higher rates of hospitalization (89.6% vs. 81.5%, p <0.001) and financial liability (median $5.5K vs. $4.6K USD, p =0.006). Having a psychiatric diagnosis post-LT was independently associated with experiencing high financial liability >$5K. Over 1 in 4 LTRs had a psychiatric diagnosis in a large national cohort, yet nearly a quarter received no treatment. LTRs with psychiatric diagnoses experienced increased health care utilization and higher financial liability. Sociodemographic and clinical risk factors could inform high-risk subgroups who may benefit from screening and mitigation strategies.

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ZCCHC17 knockdown phenocopies Alzheimer's disease-related loss of synaptic proteins and hyperexcitability.

ZCCHC17 is a master regulator of synaptic gene expression and has recently been shown to play a role in splicing of neuronal mRNA. We previously showed that ZCCHC17 protein declines in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain tissue before there is significant gliosis and neuronal loss, that ZCCHC17 loss partially replicates observed splicing abnormalities in AD brain tissue, and that maintenance of ZCCHC17 levels is predicted to support cognitive resilience in AD. Here, we assessed the functional consequences of reduced ZCCHC17 expression in primary cortical neuronal cultures using siRNA knockdown. Consistent with its previously identified role in synaptic gene expression, loss of ZCCHC17 led to loss of synaptic protein expression. Patch recording of neurons shows that ZCCHC17 loss significantly disrupted the excitation/inhibition balance of neurotransmission, and favored excitatory-dominant synaptic activity as measured by an increase in spontaneous excitatory post synaptic currents and action potential firing rate, and a decrease in spontaneous inhibitory post synaptic currents. These findings are consistent with the hyperexcitable phenotype seen in AD animal models and in patients. We are the first to assess the functional consequences of ZCCHC17 knockdown in neurons and conclude that ZCCHC17 loss partially phenocopies AD-related loss of synaptic proteins and hyperexcitability.

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Risk factors affecting polygenic score performance across diverse cohorts

Apart from ancestry, personal or environmental covariates may contribute to differences in polygenic score (PGS) performance. We analyzed effects of covariate stratification and interaction on body mass index (BMI) PGS (PGS BMI ) across four cohorts of European (N=491,111) and African (N=21,612) ancestry. Stratifying on binary covariates and quintiles for continuous covariates, 18/62 covariates had significant and replicable R 2 differences among strata. Covariates with the largest differences included age, sex, blood lipids, physical activity, and alcohol consumption, with R 2 being nearly double between best and worst performing quintiles for certain covariates. 28 covariates had significant PGS BMI -covariate interaction effects, modifying PGS BMI effects by nearly 20% per standard deviation change. We observed overlap between covariates that had significant R 2 differences among strata and interaction effects – across all covariates, their main effects on BMI were correlated with their maximum R 2 differences and interaction effects (0.56 and 0.58, respectively), suggesting high-PGS BMI individuals have highest R 2 and increase in PGS effect. Using quantile regression, we show the effect of PGS BMI increases as BMI itself increases, and that these differences in effects are directly related to differences in R 2 when stratifying by different covariates. Given significant and replicable evidence for context-specific PGS BMI performance and effects, we investigated ways to increase model performance taking into account non-linear effects. Machine learning models (neural networks) increased relative model R 2 (mean 23%) across datasets. Finally, creating PGS BMI directly from GxAge GWAS effects increased relative R 2 by 7.8%. These results demonstrate that certain covariates, especially those most associated with BMI, significantly affect both PGS BMI performance and effects across diverse cohorts and ancestries, and we provide avenues to improve model performance that consider these effects.

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