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The landscape of penile cancer research in Germany and Austria: a survey among professors in academic centers holding chair positions and results of a literature search.

Research on penile cancer (PeCa) is predominantly conducted in countries with centralized treatment of PeCa-patients. In Germany and Austria (G + A), no state-regulated centralization is established, and no information is available on how PeCa-research is organized. Current research competence in PeCa was assessed by a 36-item questionnaire sent to all chairholders of urological academic centers in G + A. Based on PubMed records, all scientific PeCa-articles of 2012-2022 from G + A were identified. Current research trends were assessed by dividing the literature search into two periods (P1: 2012-2017, P2: 2018-2022). A bibliometric analysis was supplemented. Response rate of the questionnaire was 75%, a median of 13 (IQR: 9-26) PeCa-patients/center was observed in 2021. Retrospective case series were conducted by 38.9% of participating clinics, while involvement in randomized-controlled trials was stated in 8.3% and in basic/fundamental research in 19.4%. 77.8% declared an interest in future multicenter projects. 205 PeCa-articles were identified [median impact factor: 2.77 (IQR: 0.90-4.37)]. Compared to P1, P2 showed a significant increase in the median annual publication count (29 (IQR: 13-17) vs. 15 (IQR: 19-29), p < 0.001), in multicenter studies (79.1% vs. 63.6%, p = 0.018), and in multinational studies (53% vs. 28.9%, p < 0.001); the proportion of basic/fundamental research articles significantly declined (16.5% vs. 28.9%, p = 0.041). Four of the top-5 institutions publishing PeCa-articles are academic centers. Bibliometric analyses revealed author networks, primary research areas in PeCa, and dominant journals for publications. Given the lack of centralization in G + A, this analysis highlights the need for research coordination within multicenter PeCa-projects. The decline in basic/fundamental research should be effectively addressed by the allocation of funded research projects.

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Relevance of different prognostic scores in primary CNS lymphoma in the era of intensified treatment regimens: A retrospective, multicenter analysis of 174 patients.

Treatment intensification (including consolidative high-dose chemotherapy with autologous stem cell transplantation [HDT-ASCT]) significantly improved outcome in primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) patients. We conducted a multicenter, retrospective analysis of newly diagnosed PCNSL patients, treated with intensified treatment regimens. The following scores were evaluated in terms of overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS): Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), International Extranodal Lymphoma Study Group (IELSG), and three-factor (3F) prognostic score. Further, all scores were comparatively investigated for model quality and concordance. Altogether, 174 PCNSL patients were included. One hundred and five patients (60.3%) underwent HDT-ASCT. Two-year OS and 2-year PFS for the entire population were 73.3% and 48.5%, respectively. The MSKCC (p = .003) and 3F score (p < .001), but not the IELSG score (p = .06), had the discriminatory power to identify different risk groups for OS. In regard to concordance, the 3F score (C-index [0.71]) outperformed both the MSKCC (C-index [0.64]) and IELSG (C-index [0.53]) score. Moreover, the superiority of the 3F score was shown for PFS, successfully stratifying patients in three risk groups, which also resulted in the highest C-index (0.66). The comparative analysis of established PCNSL risk scores affirm the clinical utility of the 3F score stratifying the widest prognostic spectrum among PCNSL patients treated with intensified treatment approaches.

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Gene Distribution in Pediatric-Onset Inherited Peripheral Neuropathy: A Single Tertiary Center in Thailand.

Inherited peripheral neuropathy presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge due to its association with mutations in over 100 genes. This condition leads to long-term disability and poses a substantial healthcare burden on society. This study aimed to investigate the distribution of genes and establish the genotype-phenotype correlations, focusing on pediatric-onset cases. Exome sequencing and other analytical techniques were employed to identify pathogenic variants, including duplication analysis of the PMP22 gene. Each patient underwent physical examination and electrophysiological studies. Genotypes were correlated with phenotypic features, such as age at disease onset and ulnar motor nerve conduction velocity. We identified 35 patients with pediatric-onset inherited peripheral neuropathy. Pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were confirmed in 24 out of 35 (68.6%) patients, with 4 of these variants being novel. A confirmed molecular diagnosis was achieved in 90.9% (10/11) of patients with demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) and 56.3% (9/16) of patients with axonal CMT. Among patients with infantile-onset CMT (≤2 years), the most common causative genes were MFN2 and NEFL, while GDAP1 and MFN2 were frequent causes among patients with childhood- or adolescent-onset CMT (3-9 years). The MFN2 gene was the most commonly implicated gene, and the axonal type was predominant in this cohort of Thai patients with pediatric-onset inherited peripheral neuropathy.

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Offering Subscriptions of Industrial Goods: Uncertain Experiment or Necessary Step?

The implementation of Industry 4.0 often entails various changes to a company's business model. Not all companies take advantage of the new technological capabilities or create new digital revenue streams. In this regard, subscription business models are growing more prevalent in the market for industrial goods. Although just a few pioneers have integrated subscription offerings in their portfolio so far, an increasing number of companies are considering doing the same. This article contributes to this subject by examining the transformation from a component supplier to a subscription service provider and its impact on customer relationships. The findings are drawn from three in-depth case studies, two interviews per each case and ten additional interviews with experts to gather further information. Agency theory provides the theoretical framework. We identify enablers and challenges of subscription business models during the consideration, implementation, and operation phase. This article provides practical insights into the transformation of a provider's business model in conjunction with subscription, thus benefiting companies in every step of the transformation process. Moreover, we contribute to the theoretical literature on Industry 4.0 and servitization by structuring the transformation toward a subscription business model in phases and correlate features with each phase.

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