The two-species Fermi gas with attractive short-range interactions in two spatial dimensions provides a paradigmatic system for the understanding of strongly correlated Fermi superfluids in two dimensions. It is known to exhibit a BEC to BCS crossover as a function of ln(k_{F}a), where a is the scattering length, and to undergo a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless superfluid transition below a critical temperature T_{c}. However, the extent of a pseudogap regime in the strongly correlated regime of ln(k_{F}a)∼1, in which pairing correlations persist above T_{c}, remains largely unexplored with controlled theoretical methods. Here, we use finite-temperature auxiliary-field quantum MonteCarlo methods on discrete lattices in the canonical ensemble formalism to calculate thermodynamical observables in the strongly correlated regime. We extrapolate to continuous time and the continuum limit to eliminate systematic errors and present results for particle numbers ranging from N=42 to N=162. We estimate T_{c} by a finite-size scaling analysis, and observe clear pseudogap signatures above T_{c} and below a temperature T^{*} in both the spin susceptibility and free-energy gap. We also present results for the contact, a fundamental thermodynamic property of quantum many-body systems with short-range interactions.