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An Umbrella Review of Text Message Programs for Adults With Type 2 Diabetes

The purpose of this umbrella review was to synthesize the evidence from published systematic reviews on the effectiveness of text message programs for adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) on glycemic management (A1C), self-management, and other clinical outcomes. The effect of directionality of the program was also explored. A systematic search was conducted using multiple databases. Inclusion criteria were systematic review of text message programs for adults with T2DM, evaluated A1C, and English language. Quality assessment was completed using AMSTAR-2 guidelines. Data were extracted by multiple coders, and results were synthesized. The final sample included 9 systematic reviews published between 2011 and 2019, with 72 unique international studies. Text message programs focused on diabetes self-management and reducing health risks through educational and motivational content with some providing personalized feedback. A meta-analysis of program effect on A1C was conducted in 5 reviews with a pooled difference in A1C from -0.38% to -0.8%. Adults with T2DM of shorter duration and lower A1C had better treatment effects. Evidence on unidirectional versus bidirectional programs is conflicting; however, both improve outcomes. Evidence of text message programs targeting medication engagement was inconclusive. Some programs improved blood pressure, lipids, self-management, self-efficacy, and health behaviors. High satisfaction and an average of 9.6% to 18.7% attrition was reported. Text messaging programs can improve T2DM outcomes, are a highly accessible mode of communication, are relatively inexpensive, and are an underutilized adjunct to clinical care.

The Healthy Eating and Living Against Noncommunicable Diseases Study: An Innovative Family-Based Intervention

Inadequate nutrition literacy within families is a barrier for healthy dietary choices and influences chronic disease risk. This pilot study examined the feasibility of providing an in-person nutrition intervention for families at high risk of developing prediabetes or type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk-factors. Eligible families had at least one member with a non-communicable disease (NCD) or metabolic risk factor, fluency in English, willingness to attend all three educational sessions and complete questionnaires as a family unit. Sessions included didactic and experiential activities on food label reading, portion sizing, physical activity and modifiable lifestyle factors to reduce NCD risk. Demographics and fruit and vegetable screeners were collected from all participants at baseline and after completion of sessions. Families participated in focus groups to evaluate the program. Twelve families (n=35;17 adults;18 children) were recruited from New York City. Participants self-identified as Asian, Hispanic or Black. Adults had a mean age of 40y, BMI of 32.29kg/m2, household income of $35,000-$49,000y, and 13 of 17 adult participants had college degrees. Children ranged from 1-17y. Based on focus group feedback, three sessions were acceptable, families reported enjoying interactive activities and group learning and requested child-friendly activities. They reported improved knowledge of food labels, strategies for grocery shopping, portion-sizing, and increased awareness of the links between diet quality and NCDs. The study met recruitment goals within 4 months. The educational intervention was acceptable and may be scaled-up for future studies on NCD prevention, particularly prediabetes and type 2 diabetes.

“Together We Can Return to Balance”—Eastern Woodlands Native Perspectives and Type 2 Diabetes: A Qualitative Study

To explore the perspectives of Eastern Woodlands Native people with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) in the context of health beliefs, T2DM disease self-management, and family and community connections. A qualitative descriptive method using face-to-face or telephonic semistructured interviews was employed with Native people ages 18 years or older who have a diagnosis of T2DM (N = 12) from an unidentified Eastern Woodlands tribe. The PEN-3 Cultural Model guided the study initially. The overarching theme "together we can return to balance" corresponded to 5 subthemes: coming to know life paths with T2DM, acknowledging the imbalance, negotiating my way forward, making important connections, and sticking closer to Mother Earth. Dimensions within the subthemes suggest why Native people may not be reaching T2DM treatment goals. Reasons include incomplete diabetes knowledge, difficulty accessing resources, and contextual variations in adoption of conventional diabetes treatments. This study identified themes from Native perspectives about T2DM self-management and about prospects that may mitigate incomplete knowledge and support. Integrating indigenous health and wellness knowledge with conventional principles of diabetes care presents several opportunities for nurses to advance diabetes self-management (DSM) education and support. Including Native health concepts when educating patients about DSM should be viewed as desirable for holistic family and community involvement that is central toward preventing disease progression.

Veterans’ Experiences With Diabetes: A Qualitative Analysis

The purpose of the study was to explore an understanding of the psychosocial-behavioral impact of diabetes self-management among veterans with diabetes. Twenty-six veterans participated in 1 of 9 focus groups that were conducted following a group diabetes self-management education class and prior to a mindfulness intervention as part of a feasibility pilot study. Discussions were guided by open-ended questions that addressed the overarching research question, "How do attitudes and experiences with diabetes inform psychosocial-educational approaches to diabetes self-management education and care for veterans?" Focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed. The data was then independently coded and thematically analyzed by 2 coders. Five main themes that reflect veterans' perceptions of their experiences with diabetes and diabetes self-management were identified: (1) distress and negative emotions, (2) social isolation, (3) perceived lack of control, (4) attitudes toward diabetes support, and (5) desire for information about stress, diabetes, health, and behavior. Veterans experience emotional distress and have unmet psychosocial needs related to diabetes self-management. Insight gained from these veteran perspectives suggests a framework for integrating psycho-educational interventions like mindfulness into diabetes care that emphasize stress reduction, person-centered communication, and opportunities for peer support.

Effect of Disclosure on Receiving Spousal Support in Korean Immigrants With Type 2 Diabetes

The purpose of this study was to investigate factors associated with receiving diabetes spousal support in a sample of Korean immigrants with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and to test whether disclosure (culture-specific factor) is a significant predictor of spousal support receipt in this group. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with a convenience sample of 136 US community-dwelling Korean immigrants with T2DM ages 46 to 89 years old. Potential predictors were sociodemographic factors (age, gender, education, years in US), personal characteristics (quality of marriage and depression), diabetes severity (duration of diabetes, A1C, insulin use), diabetes self-management, diabetes worries/concerns (psychological factor), and disclosure of worries (cultural factor). The study used validated survey instruments including Diabetes Care Profile for spousal support received, Summary of Diabetes Self-Care Activities, Problem Area in Diabetes, and Diabetes Distress Disclosure Index. Descriptive statistics, correlations, and hierarchical multivariable linear regression models were conducted. Six predictors (education level, years spent in the US, glucose control status, diabetes self-management level, diabetes worries/concerns, and disclosure of diabetes worries) were significantly related to receiving spousal support. At least some college education, less time in the US, better glucose control (lower A1C), poor self-management, more diabetes worries, and more disclosure of diabetes worries/distress were associated with receiving higher level of spousal support. Disclosure was the strongest predictor. Receiving spousal support for diabetes self-management among Korean immigrants is influenced by 6 factors identified in this study. Disclosing diabetes worries (cultural factor) is most impactful.

Perspectives of Parents With Type 1 Diabetes: Role of Children in Self-Management and Support

The purpose of this study was to examine parents' perceptions of the role children play in their type 1 diabetes (T1DM) care. Family members are a resource to support T1DM self-management, but how children are involved in their parents' diabetes has not been well explored. Parents with T1DM (n = 85) and a subset of their romantic partners (n = 55) participated in interviews during which they described their children's knowledge of and involvement in diabetes care. Interviews were transcribed, responses coded/tallied, and themes identified. All parents reported that children knew of their diabetes, which they learned about progressively from a young age. Most parents reported children to be accepting and understanding of the ways that diabetes affected their family experiences (eg, pause to treat low blood glucose). When asked about specific support, parents rated "making parent feel better about diabetes" as the most frequently occurring behavior. Some parents felt that children, particularly younger ones, occasionally detracted from T1DM management, but this was usually expected and considered transient. Regardless of child age, many parents did not want diabetes to burden children and limited their involvement. Both parents with T1DM and partners requested resources to enhance child awareness and preparedness to support diabetes. Respondents, particularly partners, were also interested in learning how to communicate better as a family and share perspectives on how diabetes affects individual family members. Diabetes care and education specialists should consider developmentally and relationally appropriate ways to engage children of parents with T1DM in education and self-management.

“Finding the Balance”: A Qualitative Study of the Experience of Nurses and Patients with Diabetes on an Insulin Pump in the Hospital

The purpose of this study was to explore experiences of hospitalized patients as they transition insulin pump self-management from home to hospital and the experience of nurses caring for them. Patients are often more knowledgeable about the pump than their nurses, which could lead to undiscovered challenges. Little is known about the hospital experience related to insulin pump therapy from nurses' and patients' perspectives. A qualitative approach with interpretive descriptive design and purposive sampling was used. Eligible patients were ≥18 years of age, able to read and speak English, and admitted to non-ICU settings ≥20 hours. Eligible nurses cared for at least 1 patient using an insulin pump. Patients and nurses were interviewed separately. Interviews were audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. Data were analyzed using a constant comparative method. Coding was performed independently and jointly to reach consensus on emerging themes. Hospitalized patients and nurses had an array of perceptions highlighting challenges and adaption to "finding the balance" in managing diabetes when patients wore their insulin pumps. There were 4 interrelated themes representing a continuum of trust to lack of trust, control versus lack of control, effective communication to limited communication, and staff knowledge to lack of knowledge. Results of this study provide valuable insights into the challenges for both patients and nurses. A standardized approach to caring for this population is necessary. These findings can inform the development of nursing education programs and policies aimed at improving their experiences.

Open Access