Topological data analysis (TDA) allows us to explore the topological features of a dataset. Among topological features, lower dimensional ones have recently drawn the attention of practitioners in mathematics and statistics due to their potential to aid the discovery of low dimensional structure in a data set. However, lower dimensional features are usually challenging to detect based on finite samples and using TDA methods that ignore the probabilistic mechanism that generates the data. In this paper, lower dimensional topological features occurring as zero-density regions of density functions are introduced and thoroughly investigated. Specifically, we consider sequences of coverings for the support of a density function in which the coverings are comprised of balls with shrinking radii. We show that, when these coverings satisfy certain sufficient conditions as the sample size goes to infinity, we can detect lower dimensional, zero-density regions with increasingly higher probability while guarding against false detection. We supplement the theoretical developments with the discussion of simulated experiments that elucidate the behaviour of the methodology for different choices of the tuning parameters that govern the construction of the covering sequences and characterize the asymptotic results.

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