Surface topological differences of phage infected uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) strains, revealed by atomic force microscopy
BackgroundAtomic force microscopy (AFM) is an advance microscopic technique that provides three dimensional structures of cell surfaces with high resolution. In the present study AFM was used for comparative analysis of surface topology of phage infected and uninfected Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) cells. Two UPEC strains NE and HN were isolated from urine samples of Urinary tract infection patients and their specific narrow host range lytic phages 3S and HNΦ were isolated from the sewage of different areas.ResultsOn the basis of one step growth curve both phages characterized as short latent period phages with latency period of about 30 min. On AFM analysis significant difference in topology of healthy and infected cells were observed. It was hypothesized that progeny of both lytic phages released out from their respective host cells in different manner. The image of 3S infected UPEC host cells (NE) revealed multiple internal projections which showed progeny phages released out from host cells through these multiple sites. Whereas images of HNΦ infected HN host cells showed central depression which illustrated that new phages released out through single exit point from the middle of cell.ConclusionsThese results are significant to extend future studies on isolated phages as an effective tool for phage therapy.
- Citations: 2
- Dec 29, 2016
What makes it likeable? A study on the reactions to messages in a digital social network: the case of Facebook in Farsi
BackgroundAfter a piece of information is put into a network, its fate depends on the behaviors of the nodes of the network; nodes that are equipped with the hardware and software of the age of information and are more powerful than any time in the past. This study suggests that a useful research for communication, marketing and advertising would be one that looks for patterns in the reactions of the nodes toward different pieces of information.ResultsThis study has used Facebook to see how people have reacted to different types of messages in terms of liking, sharing and commenting. Rather than looking for universal, generalizable patterns we have tried to examine the practicality of the proposed method. The practical aspect of the study comes after a short theoretical discussion on the issue of flow of information in a digital world. The results revealed dozens of significant relations between the examined variables.ConclusionsThis study, its theoretical discussion and results suggest that it would be practical to study the relations between the characteristics of Facebook messages and the type of reactions (liking, sharing and commenting) that they attract.
- Citations: 1
- Dec 20, 2016
Cryptococcal meningitis associated with increased adenosine deaminase in the cerebrospinal fluid
Introduction Clinically, increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) adenosine deaminase (ADA) level is an important diagnostic clue of tuberculous meningitis. However, increased CSF ADA level can be caused by other neurological diseases.Case descriptionWe report a case of a 67-year-old woman with cryptococcal meningitis presented with increased ADA level of the CSF. In parallel with her recovery, the ADA level of CSF decreased steadily. This is the first case described the chronological change in CSF ADA level of the patient with cryptococcal meningitis in detail.Discussion and EvaluationClinically, increased CSF ADA level is an important diagnostic clue of tuberculous meningitis. However, previously, it was reported that increased CSF ADA level can be caused by other neurological diseases. In this case, the patient was diagnosed with cryptococcal meningitis, and the possibility of coinfection with tuberculous meningitis has been discarded by the negative PCR, negative cultures and the clinical course. In addition, the chronological change in CSF ADA level was useful for follow-up assessment.ConclusionsCryptococcal meningitis should be considered for the differential diagnosis for diseases presented increased CSF ADA.
- Citations: 3
- Dec 12, 2016
Efficacy of triple antiemetic therapy (palonosetron, dexamethasone, aprepitant) for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting in patients receiving carboplatin-based, moderately emetogenic chemotherapy
BackgroundChemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV) is a major adverse toxicity of cancer chemotherapy. Recommended treatments for prevention of CINV vary among published guidelines, and optimal care for CINV caused by moderately emetogenic chemotherapy has not been established. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of triple antiemetic therapy comprising palonosetron, dexamethasone and aprepitant for carboplatin-based chemotherapy. Chemotherapy-naïve patients with lung cancer scheduled for a first course of a carboplatin-containing regimen formed the study cohort. Patients were pretreated with antiemetic therapy comprising palonosetron (0.75 mg, i.v.) and dexamethasone (9.9 mg, i.v.) on day 1, and aprepitant (125 mg, p.o.) on day 1 followed by 80 mg on days 2 and 3. Primary endpoint was the proportion of patients who did not experience vomiting and did not require rescue medication [complete response (CR)] in the acute phase (0–24 h), late phase (24–168 h) and overall. Secondary endpoint was the proportion of patients who experienced no vomiting episodes and no more than mild nausea without the need for rescue medication [complete control (CC)].ResultsPrevalence of a CR during the acute phase, delayed phase, and overall was 100, 91.9 and 91.9%, whereas that of CC was 100, 84.4 and 84.4%, respectively. The most common adverse event was mild constipation; severe adverse events related to antiemetic treatment were not observed.ConclusionTriple antiemetic therapy comprising palonosetron, dexamethasone and aprepitant shows excellent effects in the prevention of CINV in patients receiving a carboplatin-containing regimen.
- Citations: 9
- Dec 7, 2016
Successful ceritinib treatment in a man with MPE and an ALK fusion gene mutation after multiple treatments
Introduction Ceritinib is a second-generation anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) inhibitor. It inhibits two of the most common ALK-mutants that confer resistance to crizotinib. Ceritinib was approved by Food and Drug Administration in April 2014. However, the efficacy of ceritinib in Asian patients have not been widely studied. Decrease of malignant pleural effusion (MPE) has been rarely reported after treatment with ceritinib.Case descriptionA 50-year old man diagnosed with stage IV lung adenocarcinoma presented with MPE and an ALK fusion gene mutation. The patient showed partial response to ceritinib after 2-month treatment. Ultrasound showed MPE significantly decreased.Discussion and evaluationCeritinib is a good choice, as a targeted therapy, which is more prospect in the advanced cancer patients than the traditional therapy.ConclusionCeritinib seems to have a good efficacy in reducing MPE in advanced Asian lung adenocarcinoma patients, when other chemotherapy failed.
- Citations: 3
- Dec 7, 2016
A C-band broadband ortho-mode transducer for radioastronomy polarimetry
BackgroundWe describe the design, the construction and performance of a narrow band ortho-mode transducer, currently used in the 5 GHz polarimetric receiver of the Galactic Emission Mapping project.ResultsThe ortho-mode transducer was designed to achieve a high degree of transmission within the 400 MHz of the GEM band around the 5 GHz (4.8–5.2 GHz). It is composed of a circular-to-square waveguide transition, a septum polarizer, a thin waveguide coupler and a smooth square-to-rectangular waveguide transition with custom waveguide bends to the output ports.ConclusionOur simulations and measurements show a very low level of cross-polarization of about −60 dB and a good impedance match for all three ports (S11; S22; S33 < −30 dB) with only 0:25 dB of insertion loss offset across the 400 MHz (4.8–5.2 GHz) of the reception bandwidth.
- Citations: 1
- Dec 2, 2016
The effects for PM2.5 exposure on non-small-cell lung cancer induced motility and proliferation
BackgroundIncreasing urbanization and associated air pollution, including elevated levels of particulate matter (PM), are strongly correlated with the development of various respiratory diseases. In particular, PM2.5 has been implicated in promoting lung cancer initiation, growth and progression. Cell migration and proliferation are crucial for the progression of cancer. However, the molecular signatures and biological networks representing the distinct and shared features of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) after PM2.5 exposure are unknown.ResultsFunctional assays demonstrated higher proliferation, migration and invasion of cancer cells stimulated with PM2.5. To investigate the complicated mechanisms, we performed global transcriptome profiling of the A549 cell line. Particularly, transcriptome sequencing revealed invasive characteristics reminiscent of cancer cells. By comparing the transcriptomes, we identified distinct molecular signatures and cellular processes defining the invasive and proliferative properties of PM2.5-exposed cells, respectively. Interestingly, under the PM2.5-stimulated condition, the A549 and H1299 cells strengthened obviously properties in motility and proliferation. Based on the network model reconstructing the shared protein–protein interactions, we selected the two most up-regulated genes, interleukin-1β (IL1β) and matrix metalloprotease 1 (MMP1), as key regulators responsible for the effects of PM2.5 exposure. Notably, IL1β and MMP1 expression was elevated in independent assays, which was further enhanced by PM2.5.ConclusionTaken together, our systems approach to investigating PM2.5 exposure provides a basis to identify key regulators responsible for the pathological features of NSCLC.
- Citations: 26
- Dec 1, 2016