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Streptococcus spp. and Fusobacterium nucleatum in tongue dorsum biofilm from halitosis patients: a fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) study.

The present study involved a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of tongue dorsum biofilms sampled from halitosis patients and healthy volunteers. The aim of the study was to quantify the distribution of Streptococcus spp. and Fusobacterium nucleatum within the oral halitosis biofilm in order to highlight the role of these bacterial members in halitosis. Tongue plaque samples from four halitosis-diagnosed patients and four healthy volunteers were analyzed and compared. The visualization and quantification of the tongue dorsum biofilm was performed combining fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Eubacteria, Streptococcus spp. and Fusobacterium nucleatum were stained using specific fluorescent probes. For a comparison of the two tested biofilm groups the Wilcoxon rank-sum test was used. Morphological analysis by CLSM illustrated the distribution of the species which were tracked. Streptococcus spp. appeared to be enclosed within the samples and always associated to F. nucleatum. Furthermore, compared to the control group the biofilm within the halitosis group contained significantly higher proportions of F. nucleatum and Streptococcus spp., as revealed by the FISH and CLSM-analysis. The total microbial load and relative proportions of F. nucleatum and Streptococcus spp. can be considered as causative factors of halitosis and thus, as potential treatment targets.

Beijing/W and major spoligotype families of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains isolated from tuberculosis patients in Eastern Turkey.

The aim of this study was to determine the Beijing/W family and major phylogenetic clades of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains of tuberculosis patients in a city with a tuberculosis incidence higher than the country average. A total of 220 M. tuberculosis strains isolated over a period of more than four years were typed by spoligotyping. Spoligotyping resulted in 64 different patterns, 38 (17.3%) of which were unique, and 26 were clusters including 182 (82.7%) strains. The major shared types were ST 53 (n = 55, 25%), ST 41 (LAM7-TUR; n = 19, 8.6%), and ST 284 (n = 15, 6.8%). The major clades observed ranked in the following order: ill-defined T superfamily (n = 112, 50.9%); Latino-American-Mediterranean (LAM; n = 33, 15%); Haarlem (n = 24, 10.9%); and the S family (n = 9, 4.1%). Three strains were in the Beijing family. A high number of strains (33 strains) showed patterns that did not fall within any of the major clades described. M. tuberculosis strains in Malatya have both STs showing a widespread distribution over the world and those restricted to this city, confirming the highly diverse nature of tuberculosis. Our results suggest that the Beijing clade, which is more prevalent among the strains with MDR and isoniazid resistance, is currently not a problem in Eastern Turkey.