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The Prevalence of Mild Cognitive Impairment (Mci) among Older Population of Rural Kerala: A Cross-Sectional Study.

There are only very few studies on estimating the prevalence of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) from India, particularly from a rural setting. The available studies were heterogeneous. The study estimated the prevalence of MCI in a rural setting in Kerala, India. We conducted a community-based, cross-sectional study among individuals aged 65 and above in rural Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala. A cluster-randomized sampling was adopted, the cluster being the wards in the village. It was a two-phase door-to-door survey. Grassroots-level health workers enrolled 366 elders in the selected four wards in the initial phase and collected information on the sociodemographic details, comorbidities, and other risk factors of the participants, using a semi-structured questionnaire. Additionally, the Everyday Abilities Scale for India (EASI) was administered to assess their activities of daily living. In the second phase, a neurologist and a psychologist examined those screened positive with EASI and diagnosed MCI and dementia based on the MCI Working Group of the European Consortium on Alzheimer's Disease and the DSM V criteria, respectively. The prevalence of MCI and dementia was 18.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 14.7%-23.4%) and 6.8% (4.46%-10.1%), respectively, among the study participants. The prevalence of MCI was higher among the unemployed and those above 70 years of age. The community prevalence of MCI is more than three times that of dementia among the elderly in rural Kerala.

Evaluation of Thiol–Disulfide Homeostasis with Electrical Status Epilepticus in Slow Sleep (ESES)

Electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) is an epileptic syndrome specific to childhood and has a broad clinical spectrum that included seizures, behavioral/cognitive impairments, and motor neurological symptoms. Antioxidants are seen as promising neuroprotective strategies for the epileptic state by combating the harmful effects of excessive oxidant formation in mitochondria. This study aims to evaluate the thiol-disulfide balance and to determine whether it can be used in the clinical and electrophysiological follow-up of patients with ESES, especially in addition to the electroencephalography (EEG) examination. The study included 30 patients, aged 2-18 years and diagnosed with ESES in the Pediatric Neurology Clinic of the Training and Research Hospital and a control group of 30 healthy children. Total thiol, native thiol, disulfide, and ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) levels were measured, and disulfide-thiol ratios were calculated for both groups. Native thiol and total thiol levels were significantly lower and IMA level and disulfide-native thiol percentage ratio were significantly higher in the ESES patient group than in the control group. Serum thiol-disulfide homeostasis is an accurate marker of oxidative stress in ESES, and standard and automated measures of thiol-disulfide balance as an indicator of oxidative stress showed a shift toward oxidation in ESES patients in this study. The negative correlation between spike-wave index (SWI) and thiol levels, and serum thiol-disulfide levels suggest that they can be used as biomarkers for follow-up of patients with ESES in addition to EEG. IMA can also be used for long-term response to monitoring purposes at ESES.

Is Popularity of Fibrin Glue a Misrepresentation? A Comparative Study with Fibrin Glue and Suture Anastomosis in Rat Sciatic Nerve Injury Analysing Functional, Histological, Electrophysiological Parameters

Fibrin glue as an adjunct in peripheral nerve injuries has gained recent popularity. Whether fibrosis and inflammatory processes which are the major hindrances in repair reduce with fibrin glue has more of theoretical support than experimental. A prospective nerve repair study was conducted between two different species of rats as donor and recipient. Four comparison groups with 40 rats were outlined with or without fibrin glue in immediate post-injury period with fresh or cold preserved grafts were examined based on histological, macroscopic, functional, and electrophysiological criteria. There was suture site granuloma along with neuroma formation and inflammatory reaction and severe epineural inflammation in allografts with immediate suturing (Group A), whereas suture site inflammation and epineural inflammation were negligible in cold preserved allografts with immediate suturing (Group B). Allografts with minimal suturing and glue (Group C) had less severe epineural inflammation with less severe suture site granuloma and neuroma formation as compared to first two groups. Continuity of nerve was partial in later group as compared to other two. In fibrin glue only group (Group D), suture site granuloma and neuroma were absent, with negligible epineural inflammation, but continuity nerve was partial to absent in most of the rats with some showing partial continuity. Functionally, microsuturing with or without glue demonstrated significant difference with better SLR and toe spread (p = 0.042) as compared with only glue. Electrophysiologically, NCV was maximum in Group A and least in Group D at 12 weeks. We report significant difference in CMAP and NCV between microsuturing group vs. only glue group (p < 0.05) and also between microsuturing with glue group vs. only glue group (p < 0.05). There may be more data required with proper standardization for adept usage of fibrin glue. Though our results have shown partial success, it nonetheless highlights the lack of sufficient data for widespread glue usage.

Postoperative Seizure Control in Adult Diffuse Insular Gliomas Presenting with Seizures: A Retrospective Single-Center Experience and Proposal of a Novel Risk Scoring System.

Studies on insular gliomas (IGs) generally focus on the oncological endpoints with a relative scarcity of literature focusing on the seizure outcomes. To study the predictors of long-term postoperative seizure control in IG and propose a novel risk scoring system. Histopathologically proven, newly diagnosed adult IGs (>18 years) operated over a 10-year period were studied for postoperative seizure control as per International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) grades at 6 weeks and at last follow-up (minimum of 6 months, median 27 months). Logistic regression analysis was performed and regression coefficients with nearest integers were used to build a risk prediction model. Receiver operator curve (ROC) analysis determined the predictive accuracy of this model. The 6-week postoperative seizure freedom dropped to 41% at the last follow-up. The seizure-free group lived longer (100.69 months, 95% CI = 84.3-116.99 (60%)) than those with persistent postoperative seizures (27.92 months, 95% CI = 14.99-40.86). Statistically significant predictors (preoperative seizure control status, extent of resection, tumor extension to temporal lobe, and lack of postoperative adjuvant therapy) were used to compute a risk score, the score ranging from 0 to 9. A score of four most optimally distinguished the risk of postoperative seizures with an area under the ROC of 91.4% (95% CI: 84.1%, 98.7%, P < 0.001). In our experience, around 60% of patients obtained seizure freedom after surgery, which reduces over time. Control of seizures paralleled survival outcomes. Our proposed scoring system may help tailor management strategies for these patients.

Sinonasal and Olfactory Quality of Life in Endoscopic Pituitary Surgery and Time Interval to Olfactory Recovery: A Comparative Prospective Study

Superior turbinate manipulation is often required in cases of narrow cavities and expanded endonasal approaches with concern for olfaction. The objective of the study was to compare the pre- and postoperative olfactory function in patients undergoing endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal pituitary excision with and without superior turbinectomy, using the Pocket Smell Identification Test and the quality of life (QOL) and Sinonasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT-22) scores, irrespective of the extension (Knosp grading) of pituitary tumors. We also aimed to identify olfactory neurons in the excised superior turbinate with immunohistochemical (IHC) stains and correlate them with clinical findings. The study was a prospective, randomized study performed in a tertiary center. Two groups A and B, with superior turbinate preserved and resected, respectively, during endoscopic pituitary resection, were compared using pre- and postoperative Pocket Smell Identification Test and QOL and SNOT-22 scores. The superior turbinate was subjected to IHC staining to identify the presence of olfactory neurons in patients with tumors of pituitary gland requiring endoscopic trans-sphenoid resection. Fifty patients with sellar tumors were enrolled. The mean age of patients in this study was 46.15 years. The minimum age was 18 years and the maximum was 75 years. Of the 50 patients in the study, 18 were female and 32 were male. Eleven patients had more than one presenting complaint. Loss of vision was the commonest and altered sensorium was the rarest symptom. Superior turbinectomy is a viable option to gain wider access to sella without affecting the sinonasal function, quality of life, and olfaction. There was doubtful presence of olfactory neurons in superior turbinate. The extent of tumor resection and postoperative complications were unaffected and statistically nonsignificant in both the groups.

Postoperative Third Nerve Palsy after Endoscopic Endonasal Transsphenoidal Surgery for Pituitary Adenoma: Elucidating its Mechanism

Third nerve palsy is a rare complication of transsphenoidal surgery and has been merely mentioned in different studies, but there is not any rigorous analysis focusing on this particular complication. The purpose of this study is to analyze this complication after transsphenoidal surgery for a pituitary adenoma to better understand its pathophysiology and outcome. The authors retrospectively analyzed 3 cases of third nerve palsy selected from the 377 patients operated via a transsphenoidal route between 2012 and 2021 at FLENI, a private tertiary neurology and neurosurgical medical center located in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The three patients who presented this complication were operated on via an endoscopic approach. It was observed that an extension into the cavernous sinus (Knosp grade 4) and to the oculomotor cistern was present in the three patients. The deficit was apparent immediately after surgery in two patients. For these two patients, the supposed mechanism of ophthalmoplegia was an intraoperative nerve lesion. The other patient became symptomatic in the 48 h following the surgery. The mechanism implied in this case was intracavernous hemorrhagic suffusion. The latter patient completely recovered the third nerve deficit in the 3 months that followed, while the other two recovered after 6 months postoperative. Oculomotor nerve palsy after transsphenoidal surgery is a very rare complication and appears to be transient in most cases. The invasion of both the cavernous sinus and the oculomotor cistern seems to be a major factor in its physiopathology and should be preoperatively analyzed on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI); recognizing such extension should play an important role in the surgeon's operative considerations.