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Effectiveness of photobiomodulation for people with age-related cognitive impairment: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

The increasing incident of age-related cognitive impairment worldwide and the lack of pharmaceutical treatments emphasizes the value of non-pharmaceutical therapy. Emerging evidence suggested photobiomodulation (PBM) is a popular intervention to brain disorder; however, it remains unclear the efficacy of PBM for patients with age-related cognitive impairment. The purpose of this systematic review is to compare the different parameters used in PBM, analyze the beneficial effects of PBM as a potential therapy for age-related cognitive impairment. Five electronic database, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and PsycINFO, were systematically searched from inception to November 2021. Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were screened and assessed for risk of bias. Eleven RCTs evaluating PBM interventions were included. The systematic review and meta-analysis has been registered in PROSPERO(CRD42022374562). Results showed that PBM had a significant moderated effect on global cognition function (SMD=0.51, 95% CI [0.162, 0.864], p=0.004). We found that multiple wavelength PBM (SMD=0.648, 95% CI [0.220, 1.075], p=0.003) had significant effects while single wavelength PBM was non-significant (SMD=0.385, 95% CI [-0.168, 0.987], p=0.172). Laser effect (SMD=0.682, 95% CI [0.37, 0,994], p<0.001) was larger than LED effect (SMD=0.582, 95% CI [0.269, 0.895], p<0.001). PBM in clinical setting (SMD=0.468, 95% CI [0.050, 0.887], p=0.028) had significant effect, but there was no significant effect of home-used PBM (SMD=0.616, 95% CI [-0.121, 1.354], p=0.101). The pool effect of multi-modality PBM (SMD=0.720, 95% CI [0.027, 1.414], p=0.040) was significantly higher in the studies of transcranial irradiation (SMD=0.616, 95% CI [-0.121, 1.354], p=0.010). Cumulative irradiation time was a moderator between the PBM and cognitive function improvement. Photobiomodulation have the potential to improve cognitive function in aging adults. Cumulative irradiation duration, light source, device type, penetration modality, and intervention site can affect the effectiveness of PBM intervention.

The quantitative analysis of low-concentration (2%) ALA-PDT assisted with Q-switch 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser for acne vulgaris treatment.

Conventional 5-aminolevulinic acid-photodynamic (ALA-PDT) therapy (10-20%) has been widely applied for moderate-to-severe acne. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of non-ablative Q-switched 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser-assisted ALA-PDT with low concentration (2%) on the treatment of acne vulgaris. Enrolled patients were randomly assigned to 2 groups. One group received combined therapy of 2% ALA-PDT and non-ablative Q-switched 1064-nm Nd:YAG laser, and the other received only 2% ALA-PDT. Patients in each group had received 3-session treatments with 4-week intervals (week 0, 4, and 8). Sebum secretion, melanin index, erythema index, and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) were assessed at week 2, 8, 12, and 24. VISIA® skin image system score and global esthetic improvement scale (GAIS) were also evaluated. Twenty-four participants were enrolled and evenly randomized to two groups. Significant improvement in sebum secretion was noted in combined therapy group compared to the monotherapy group at week 12 (37.5% versus 16.3%), and the improvement would still be noted until week 24 (18.3% versus 17.4%). Combined group also showed more severe melanin index and erythema index after treatment. For VISIA® skin analysis, patients in combined group had better percentile ranking in porphyrins and red-light images. There were no significant differences in GAIS at the end of the follow-up between each group, whereas higher proportion of satisfaction was noted in combined group at week 2. With the assistance of laser, low concentrations (2%) of 5-ALA can provide effective phototoxic reactions in treating acne vulgaris. The satisfaction of patients is high with acceptable adverse effects.

Wound healing process in beagles after vaporization of the prostate with a novel 200W 450-nm laser.

In comparison to other commercially used lasers, the coagulation layer of the novel 450-nm laser is thinner, and this coagulation layer's thickness is a key factor influencing wound healing. In this study, we investigated whether the novel 200W 450-nm laser system (BR6800, Blueray Medical Ltd., Shaanxi, China) is superior to classic transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) for wound healing in beagles. Twenty-two 6-to 8-year-old male beagles were treated with TURP or blue laser vaporization of the prostate (BLVP). Prostate wounds were observed via cystoscopy at 3h and at 1, 2, 3, and 5weeks post-operation (two beagles per group). Additionally, two elderly beagles without surgery served as normal controls. After cystoscopy examination, prostate samples were collected and fixed for hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and immunofluorescence staining to observe wound healing progression under microscopy. The urethras of prostates under cystoscopy in BLVP groups were healed three weeks after surgery, while in the TURP group, they were healed five weeks after surgery. H&E staining confirmed that the coagulation necrosis layer in the TURP group was thicker than that in the BLVP group and it took longer to remove coagulation necrosis after surgery. Macrophage polarity transformation was also earlier in the BLVP group. The new 200W 450-nm laser was superior to TURP for wound healing. The thinner coagulation layer of the 450-nm laser was the primary reason for this process.

Comparison of therapeutic effects of 940 nm diode laser acupuncture with transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation in the myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome: a comparative randomized clinical trial.

Myofascial pain dysfunction syndrome (MPDS) is one of the most common sources of orofacial pain. There are different types of physical therapy for patients with MPDS, but there is insufficient evidence that any one treatment method is superior. This study aimed to compare the clinical efficacy of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and laser acupuncture (LA) using a 940-nm diode on MPDS improvement. In this randomized clinical trial, 22 MPDS patients were randomly assigned to TENS (180 HZ, 300µs, 20 min) and LA (940nm, continuous wave, 0. 5 w, 40 s, 105 J/cm2) groups. Data on overall facial pain, tenderness in the masticatory muscles, deviation, joint sound, and maximum mouth opening without pain (MMO) were collected from all patients at baseline, before and after each treatment session, and 1month after the end session. Data were analyzed using an independent t-test, repeated measures ANOVA, and Fisher's exact test at a significance level of P < 0.05. The decreases in overall facial pain (P = 0.000), muscle tenderness (P = 0.000), and increase in MMO (P = 0.01,P = 0.001) were statistically significant compared to the baseline in the TENS and AL groups. No significant differences were detected between TENS and LA for overall facial pain, muscle tenderness, or MMO at 1 month follow-up (P> 0.05). Both LA and TENS are effective physical therapies with promising effects on sign and symptom improvements in MPDS patients.

Effects of low level laser on periodontal tissue remodeling in hPDLCs under tensile stress

This study aimed to investigate the effect of Low-Level Laser Therapy (LLLT) on human Periodontal Ligament Cells (hPDLCs) under tension stress. Primary hPDLCs were obtained using the tissue culture method, and P3 cells were utilized for the subsequent experiments. The study comprised four groups: a blank control group (Group B), a laser irradiation group (Group L), a tension stress group (Group T), and a laser + tension stress group (Group LT). Mechanical loading was applied using an in-vitro cell stress loading device at a frequency of 0.5 Hz and deformation of 2% for two hours per day for two days. Laser irradiation at 808 nm GaAlAs laser was administered 1 h after force loading. Cell samples were collected after the experiment. Bone and fiber remodeling factors were analyzed using PCR and Western blot. Flow cytometry was employed to assess the cell cycle, while ROS and Ca2+ levels were measured using a multifunctional enzyme labeling instrument. The results revealed that laser intervention under tension stress inhibited the expression of osteogenic differentiation factors, promoted the expression of osteoclast differentiation factors, and significantly increased the production of collagen factors, MMPs, and TIMPs. The LT group exhibited the most active cell cycle (P < 0.05). LLLT not only enhanced Ca2+ expression in hPDLCs under tension stress, but also stimulated the production of ROS. Overall, our findings demonstrate that LLLT effectively accelerated the proliferation of hPDLCs and the remodeling of periodontal tissue, possibly through the regulation of ROS and Ca2+ levels in hPDLCs.

Open Access
Advancements and prospects of Raman spectroscopy in urological tumors: a bibliometric analysis.

Raman spectroscopy exhibits potential as a tool for identifying the chemical composition of substances and has witnessed a growing application in urological oncology. This study undertook a bibliometric analysis to chart the present state and future prospects of Raman spectroscopy applications in urological tumors. The present study retrieved literature on the utilization of Raman spectroscopy in urological oncology from the Science Citation Index Expanded of Web of Science Core Collection, spanning from its inception to June 2023. Data from included studies were analyzed using CiteSpace, Python, and Excel. Our study examined 897 articles from 65 countries and identified a significant exponential growth in annual publications. The USA and China were prominent contributors to this field, with high publication rates and funding agencies. Shanghai Jiao Tong University emerged as the most influential institution. The journals Analytical Chemistry and Analyst were found to be the most productive. Our keyword analysis revealed an intense interest for "gold nanoparticle" and "pathology," with the most recent bursts occurring for "surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)," "biomarkers," and "prostate specific antigen." As a detection tool, Raman spectroscopy holds the potential to assist in the identification, management, and prognostication of urological tumors. Notably, adjuvant diagnosis and prognosis evaluation based on SERS of tumor markers is a hot research topic. These findings offer valuable insights into the current state of Raman spectroscopy research in urological oncology, which could inform future studies and clinical practice.

Effectiveness of high-intensity laser application combined with splinting and therapeutic exercise in subacute de Quervain's tenosynovitis: A pilot study.

The purpose of this study is to determine the additional effect of high-intensity laser therapy (HILT) when combined with therapeutic exercise and splinting in the treatment of patients diagnosed with de Quervain's tenosynovitis. Nineteen patients diagnosed with de Quervain's tenosynovitis were randomly divided into two groups: the HILT group and the sham HILT group. A total of 9 HILT or sham HILT sessions were administered, with 3 sessions per week for 3 consecutive weeks. Both groups received the thumb spica splint and therapeutic exercise. A comparison was conducted between the two groups, as well as pre- and post-treatment, focusing on the following outcomes: Visual Analog Scale (VAS) for pain, hand grip strength, and Thai version of Patient-Rated Wrist and Hand Evaluation (PRWHE-Thai) as a disability score. No significant differences were found between the HILT group and the sham group across all evaluated outcomes. However, when examining changes within each group over time, both the HILT and sham groups showed significant reductions in pain and improvements in disability score at the follow-up assessments compared to baseline. On the other hand, no statistically significant differences were observed in grip strength outcomes at any of the measured time points. The combination of HILT with a splint and exercise demonstrates effectiveness as a method for pain management and functional improvement in patients with subacute de Quervain's tenosynovitis. It is important to note that HILT does not offer any additional advantages when compared to the combined use of a splint and exercise.