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Hyperbaric oxygen therapy restores wound healing in irradiated gingiva to a similar level to that in healthy gingiva.

This study aimed to investigate the involvement of mitochondrial biogenesis, and determine the extent of fibroblast proliferation and cellular apoptosis, in the gingiva of patients who had undergone head and neck radiation, after receiving hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), in comparison with normal gingiva. A total of 16 patients who had undergone head and neck radiation with HBOT and six healthy subjects were included in the study. After the completion of radiation therapy, patients received HBOT at 2 ATA for 90 minutes per session, and for 20 sessions per patient. Samples of gingival tissues were then taken. The levels of: transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β); phospho-nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (p-NFϰB); nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NFϰB); proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC-1α); phospho-dynamin-related protein 1 at ser616 (p-Drp1ser616); dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1); Bcl-2-associated X-protein (Bax); and B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) were determined using a Western blot. Independent t-test and Chi-squared tests were used in the study. There were no differences in the levels of TGF-β, p-NFϰB, NFϰB, p-Drp1ser616, Drp1, Bax and Bcl-2 between the two groups. However, the level of PGC-1α was greater in irradiated gingival tissues with HBOT than in the healthy gingiva. Radiation-induced impaired wound healing can be improved by HBOT as indicated by levels of apoptosis, mitochondrial dynamics, cell proliferation and inflammation in irradiated gingiva with HBOT to a similar level to normal healthy gingiva. These findings may occur through an increase in mitochondrial biogenesis following HBOT.

A temperature-sensitive, high-adhesion medical tape: a comparative, single-blind clinical trial.

Medical adhesives are used to secure wound care dressings and other critical devices to the skin. While high peel-strength adhesives provide more secure skin attachment, they are difficult to remove from the skin and are correlated with medical adhesive-related skin injuries (MARSI), including skin tears, and an increased risk of infection. Lower-adhesion medical tapes may be applied to avoid MARSI, leading to dressing or device dislodgement and further medical complications. This paper reports on the clinical testing of a new, high-adhesion medical tape, ThermoTape (University of Washington, US), designed for low skin trauma upon release. ThermoTape was benchmarked with Tegaderm (3M, US) and Kind Removal Tape (KRT) (3M, US). All three tapes were applied to both the left and right forearm of healthy volunteers and were removed 24 hours later-the right arm without applying heat and the left arm by applying a heat pack for 30 seconds before removal. Tape wear, self-reported pain (0-10 scale) and skin redness 15 minutes after removal were recorded. This was a 53-subject comparative, single-blind clinical trial. There were clinically and statistically significant results supporting reduced pain during removal of ThermoTape with warming, with an average 58% decrease in pain, paired with a statistically significant 45% reduction in skin redness (p<0.01 for both values). In contrast, there were statistically insignificant differences in pain and redness for removal of Tegaderm and KRT with warming. ThermoTape after warming, in comparison with Tegaderm without warming, produced a reduced pain score of >1 on the 0-10 Wong-Baker/Face pain scale, which was statistically significant (p<0.01). These results provide compelling evidence that warming ThermoTape prior to removal can reduce pain and injury when compared with standard medical tapes. This could allow for stronger attachment of wound care dressings and critical medical devices while reducing cases of MARSI.

Aetiological treatment of venous leg ulcers with compression therapy: real-life outcomes with two different procedures.

To evaluate the healing outcomes and costs associated with the aetiological management of venous leg ulcers (VLUs) treated with recommended multicomponent bandages (MCBs) and short-stretch bandages (SSBs). This observational study is a retrospective comparative study (Level 2b), based on the French administrative healthcare database (Système National des Données de Santé, SNDS). It includes patients treated from onset with reimbursed MCBs and SSBs for a VLU episode, between July 2018 and September 2020. Although other compression systems, such as long-stretch bandages, are commonly used for the treatment of VLUs, they are not recommended by health authorities in France and thus, were not considered for this study. A binomial regression model was performed to estimate the adjusted relative risk of wound closure rates at three months for each group, based on potential confounding factors including, notably, age, sex, key comorbidities, and wound dressing size. The mean healthcare cost was calculated for patients whose VLUs healed within the study period. The reimbursement data (including prescribed compression systems and nursing care) of the 25,255 selected patients were analysed in the study. There were no significant differences between the MCBs and SSBs groups when considering patient characteristics. The healing rates after three months' treatment, were 42% and 35% (p<0.001) in the MCBs and SSBs groups, respectively. When adjusting the statistical model, the chance of healing at three months was still 12% higher with MCBs compared with SSBs (p<0.0001). The median healing time was estimated at 115 (interquartile range (IQR): 60-253) days in the MCB group versus 137 (IQR: 68-300) days in the SSBs group. The average treatment cost per patient with a healed ulcer was €2875±3647 in the MCB group and €3580±5575) in the SSBs group (p=0.0179), due to lower hospital stay and nursing costs in the MCB group. Differences in wound characteristics between the two groups cannot be totally excluded, due to the limited content of the database in terms of clinical data, but should have been addressed, to some extent, through the study selection criteria and the chosen regression model. In this study, this SNDS analysis seemed to confirm that the healing outcomes achieved in real-life with MCBs were in line with those reported in clinical trials, and superior to SSBs, which reinforces the current position from the guidelines.

Aquacel Ag Advantage/Ag+ Extra and Cutimed Sorbact in the management of hard-to-heal wounds: a cohort study.

To compare Aquacel Ag Advantage/Ag+ Extra (Aquacel Ag+) (Convatec, UK) and Cutimed Sorbact (Sorbact) (Essity, US) dressings indicated for the treatment of patients with venous leg ulcers (VLUs), diabetes foot ulcers (DFUs) and pressure injuries (PIs) for clinical performance and outcomes using real-world evidence in Germany and the US. This study was a chart audit review of patients who used either Aquacel Ag+ or Sorbact dressings in the 24 months prior to October 2022. Healthcare providers with access to electronic medical records and charts were asked to capture data via patient record forms. The quantitative data were analysed. Findings in Germany were comparable between Aquacel Ag+ and Sorbact with regards to wound description, management and treatment outcomes, including percent area reduction and wound closure. A difference was that a greater proportion of Sorbact patients required surgery (0% versus 11%; p=0.039). In the US, a greater proportion of wounds were worsening before dressing in the Aquacel Ag+ cohort (49% versus 34%; p=0.010). A multinomial logistic regression yielded the result that patients who received Aquacel Ag+ were 3.53 times more likely to have the wound completely healed (p=0.033). Both Aquacel Ag+ and Sorbact dressings are widely used in Germany and the US for patients with VLUs, DFUs and PIs. Our study found two important differences: patients who used Aquacel Ag+ were less likely to need further surgery in Germany; and in the US, there were significantly higher odds that wounds would completely heal with Aquacel Ag+ dressings compared to Sorbact.

Dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane use in emergent craniectomies shows minimal dural adhesions.

Decompressive craniectomies (DCs) are routinely performed neurosurgical procedures to emergently treat increased intracranial pressure secondary to multiple aetiologies, such as subdural haematoma, epidural haematoma, or malignant oedema in the setting of acute infarction. The DC procedure typically induces epidural fibrosis post-cranial resection, resulting in adherence of the dura to both the brain internally and skin flap externally. This becomes especially problematic in the setting of skull flap replacement for cranioplasty as adherences can lead to bridging vein tear, damage to the underlying brain cortex, and other postoperative complications. Dural adjuvants, which can contribute to decreased rate of adherence formation, can thereby reduce both postoperative cranioplasty complications and operative duration. Dehydrated human amnion/chorion membrane (DHACM) allografts (AMNIOFIX, MIMEDX Group Inc., US) have been shown to reduce the rate of dural scar tissue formation in re-exploration of posterior lumbar interbody fusion operations which require entry into the epidural space. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether or not the use of DHACM in the setting of emergent craniectomies decreased the rate of dural adhesion formation and subsequent cranioplasty complications. Patients (n=7) who underwent emergent craniectomy and intraoperative placement of DHACM were evaluated during replacement of either an autologous skull cap or a custom-made implant, at which point the degree of adhesions was qualitatively assessed. Placement of DHACM below and on top of the dura resulted in negligible adhesion being found during the defect exposure, and there were no intraoperative complications during cranioplasties. Reported estimated blood loss across the seven patients averaged 64.2ml, total operative time averaged 79.2 minutes, and time dedicated to exposing defect for bone flap placement was <3 minutes.

A simple index to predict healing in venous leg ulcers: a secondary analysis from four randomised controlled trials.

To investigate whether the use of a simple baseline measurement predicts venous leg ulcer healing at 12 and 24 weeks. This was a secondary analysis of a cohort of four randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of treatments adjuvant to compression. Self-reported ulcer duration, and measured ulcer length and width, to calculate estimated ulcer area, were used to obtain a Margolis index score. The score created three prognostic strata for likelihood to heal within 24 weeks, and the number of participants healed and time-to-healing were compared. There were a total of 802 participants across the four RCTs-408 (50.9%) in two 12-week trials and 394 (49.1%) in two 24-week trials. The mean age of participants was 63.7±17.6 years, and 372 were female (46.4%). The Margolis index score at baseline was 0 for 320 participants (predicted normal healing); 1 for 334 participants; and 2 for 148 participants (both 1 and 2 predicted slow-to-heal). Overall, 248 (77.5%) of those participants who scored 0 at baseline healed within 24 weeks, compared with 182 (54.5%) of participants who scored 1, and 30 (20.3%) participants who scored 2. The median time-to-healing was 40 (24-62) days, 57 (35-100) days and 86.5 (56-151) days, respectively. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.69 and 0.77, respectively, for the 12 and 24 week trials. A simple baseline index identifies participants with normal or slow-to-heal wounds and could be used to demonstrate prognostic balance between treatment groups in trials. This approach could also be used in clinical practice to assist with managing expectations and for early identification of patients who may best benefit from adjuvant treatments.