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The importance of predictors for in-hospital COVID-19 mortality changes over one month.

Risk stratification enables care providers to make the proper clinical decision for the management of patients with COVID-19 infection. We aimed to explore changes in the importance of predictors for inpatient mortality of COVID-19 over one month. This research was a secondary analysis of data from in-hospital patients with COVID-19 infection. Individuals were admitted to four hospitals, New York, USA. Based on the length of hospital stay, 4370 patients were categorized into three mutually exclusive interval groups, day 1, day 2-7, and day 8-28. We measured changes in the importance of twelve confirmed predictors for mortality over one month, using principal component analysis. On the first day of admission, there was a higher risk for organ dysfunction, particularly in elderly patients. On day 1, serum aspartate aminotransferase and sodium were also associated with an increased risk of mortality, while normal troponin opposes in-hospital death. With time, the importance of high aspartate aminotransferase and sodium concentrations decreases, while the variable quality of high troponin levels increases. Our study suggested the importance of maintaining normal blood pressure early in the management of patients. High serum concentrations of creatinine and C-reactive protein remain poor prognostic factors throughout the 28 days. The association of age with mortality increases with the length of hospital stay. The importance of some patients' characteristics changes with the length of hospital stay. This should be considered in developing and deploying predictive models and the management of patients with COVID-19 infection.

An exploration of the link between narcissism, masochism, and crime in a post-incarcerated sample.

This study examined the relationship between narcissism, masochism, and violent criminal justice involvement. Current interventions used with offender populations target traits such as antisocial personality but typically ignore narcissism and masochism. Understanding the connection between violent crime, narcissism, and masochism can help us develop a more indepth understanding of which personality features contribute to an increased proclivity towards criminal action. The participants (N = 494) were post-incarcerated individuals. To assess individuals' degree of narcissistic and masochistic thinking, the Narcissistic Personality Inventory and the underserving self-image subscale of the Self-Defeating Interpersonal Style Scale were administered via a Qualtrics survey. Basic demographic information, psychopathy, intelligence, and personality were also measured and controlled for in the analyses. A logistic regression indicated that high levels masochistic thinking were associated with violent criminal justice involvement, even when relevant covariates were controlled for. High levels of narcissism were not found to exhibit a statically significant relationship with violent criminal justice involvement when psychopathy was controlled for. These findings suggest that masochistic characteristics may be a potential target for treatment in rehabilitating offenders.

COVID-19: An opportunity to engage African Americans and women in research on cardiovascular disease.

African Americans (AA) have been disproportionately affected with the COVID-19 disease experiencing 30%-60% of the deaths, while only making up 13% of the US population. Early data suggest that pregnant women and those with cardiovascular disease (CVD) may experience worse outcomes with severe coronavirus infection. There is an urgent need to incorporate AA and female perspectives into the design of research on the CVD complications related to COVID-19. The goal of this project was to incorporate perspectives of AA and female patients in developing research priorities and AN agenda related to COVID-19. Objectives included: (a) develop a strong, research-ready partnership capable of executing PCOR, (b) creation of a research agenda and a set of priorities on racial/sex-specific CVD disparities in COVID-19 which reflects the perspectives of AA's and women; (c) long-term objective is creation of a set of research questions suitable for clinical research using the AHA Registry. The project used principles of active and adult learning within the framework of capacity building to build a strong, patient-centered vision of research needs. Different methods of obtaining patient input were used to identify questions suitable for research using the America Heart Association COVID-19 CVD Quality Improvement Registry: focus groups and town halls to identify concerns and interests vis-à-vis CVD and COVID research; narrative medicine methods collected compelling real-life, COVID-19 health stories; a research advisory council reviewed and prioritized research questions. Outcomes include a replicable method of obtaining patient-oriented input into the creation of a research agenda and a set of research priorities for COVID-19. Outputs include the establishment of a research advisory council and stakeholder training using the PCORI funded, PORTAL program resources; a catalogue of patient generated narratives on COVID-19 experiences in the voice of AAs and women, and a set of research questions suitable for research using the AHA Registry. The project created a research ready stakeholder network, ready to develop a research agenda about COVID-19.

Open Access
Stigma of sickle cell disease among Indian tribal population: A multi-centric qualitative study.

Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is the most prevalent hemoglobinopathy, impacting around 5% of the global population. The Indian tribal population, which has been a key focus of the Indian SCD program, can experience health-related stigma due to the multidimensional impact of the disease. This preliminary qualitative inquiry delves into the lived experiences of individuals and synthesizes domains to identify the sources of stigma. The study's framework for developing the stigma tool was rooted in Bronfenbrenner's Ecology of Human Development. The study was implemented in five tribal-dominated districts of India and involved in-depth interviews with sickle cell disease (SCD) patients and their caregivers to explore their stigmatizing experiences. The analysis revealed four overarching themes and several subthemes explaining the type of stigma, its source, and factors contributing to stigmatization. First, the study focused on elements associated with perceived stigma, such as disclosure, self-isolation/refusal to participate, and self-judgment. The second theme pertained to the internalization of stigma. The third theme addressed experienced stigma concerning the disease's impact on day-to-day events, and the fourth theme explored the support system patients needed. The framework highlighted the varying degrees of stigmatizing components within different aspects of patients' ecology. Our study highlights the importance of addressing stigma at various levels. Policies, programs, and healthcare interventions must target stigma across these levels. Culturally adaptive tools for identifying stigma, implementing appropriate interventions, and improving healthcare participation are essential for enhancing the quality of life and reducing the disease burden.