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Clinicopathological features of peripheral odontogenic fibromas in dogs and risk factors for their laboratory diagnosis

To explore clinicopathological features of peripheral odontogenic fibromas in dogs and risk factors for their diagnosis. Data of cases with a histopathological diagnosis of peripheral odontogenic fibromas were obtained from a UK-based diagnostic laboratory and retrospectively reviewed. Prevalence amongst all biopsy submissions was assessed using binomial tests and Clopper-Pearson intervals. Age at diagnosis was assessed using t-test for independent samples. Lesion location, sex, and neuter status were assessed using χ2 and post hoc binomial tests. Breed odds ratios were calculated using univariable logistic regression modelling. The prevalence of peripheral odontogenic fibromas amongst all biopsy submissions was 2.8% (1001 of 35,328, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.7 to 3.0). The mean (sd) age was 8.1 (±2.7) years. The most affected quadrant was the rostral maxilla (40.1%). The ratio of maxillary to mandibular lesions was 1.3:1 (95% CI: 1.1 to 1.5), and for cases of multiple peripheral odontogenic fibromas the ratio of maxillary to mandibular lesions was 2.4:1 (95% CI: 1.1 to 5.6). Males had 1.2 times the odds of suffering of peripheral odontogenic fibromas compared to females (odds ratio [OR]: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.1 to 1.4). Neutering was associated with an increased risk of diagnosis (OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.3 to 1.9). Breeds with increased odds of peripheral odontogenic fibromas compared to crossbreed dogs included boxers (OR: 3.78, 95% CI: 2.80 to 5.09), border terriers (OR: 3.21, 95% CI: 2.10 to 4.91) and Basset Hounds (OR: 3.18, 95% CI: 1.58 to 6.44). Breeds with increased odds of multiple simultaneous peripheral odontogenic fibromas compared to crossbreed dogs included: Boxers (OR: 12.02, 95% CI: 7.13 to 20.24), border terriers (OR: 5.05, 95% CI: 2.32 to 11.43) and Staffordshire Bull terriers (OR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.33 to 4.41). Knowledge of clinicopathological features and at-risk breeds for peripheral odontogenic fibroma development can assist clinicians with making a diagnosis. The identification of risk factors provides targets for future research investigating peripheral odontogenic fibroma pathogenesis.

Open Access
Perioperative complications and outcomes following partial ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy in pet rabbits: 20 cases (2009‐2021)

To investigate the perioperative complications and outcomes of rabbits undergoing partial ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy for treatment of chronic otitis. Surgical logbooks were searched to identify rabbits that underwent partial earcanal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy between December 2009 and September 2021. Datacollected included signalment, history, clinical signs, historical and current medical management,physical examination findings, preoperative diagnostic imaging and aural bacterial culture results, surgical procedure information, duration of hospitalisation, complications and final outcome. Twenty rabbits with chronic, medically unresponsive otitis underwent 27 partial ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomies. Ten rabbits had pre-existing neurologic deficits and 17 had an ear base abscess at the time of surgery. A total of 13 (65%) rabbits developed at least one complication, either in the perioperative period or between discharge and recheck. Three of these rabbits (15%) underwent revision surgery for persistent or recurrent ear base abscess. Complete resolution of clinical signs ultimately occurred in 12 (60%) rabbits. Three (15%) rabbits showed improved but not completely resolved clinical signs (three facial asymmetry). Five (25%) rabbits died of causes potentially related to chronic otitis and/or partial ear canal ablation and lateral bulla osteotomy; two of these rabbits had undergone revision surgery. Although this study reports a high complication rate (65%), most complications resolved, with 15 (75%) rabbits having a good to excellent final outcome. Since the majority ofrabbits in this study had chronic and severe ear disease, further studies are required todetermineif surgical intervention earlier in the disease process could result in a lower complicationrate.

Comparison of axillary and inguinal temperature with rectal temperature in dogs at a veterinary teaching hospital

The objective of the study was to determine the agreement between rectal, axillary and inguinal temperatures and to estimate the accuracy of these measurements in detecting hyperthermia and hypothermia in dogs presented at a veterinary teaching hospital in the tropical Guinea Savannah zone. Prospectively, body temperature was measured in 610 dogs, using digital thermometry in the axillary, inguinal and rectal regions. Overall, axillary and inguinal temperatures significantly underestimated rectal temperature, with a mean difference of -0.39 ± 0.02°C (95% confidence interval: -0.43 to -0.35; limit of agreement: -1.27 to 0.49) and - 0.34± 0.02°C (95% confidence interval, -0.37 to -0.30; limit of agreement: -1.15 to 0.47), respectively. The limits of agreement of axillary and inguinal temperatures were wide and above the pre-determined maximal acceptable difference of ±0.50°C recommended for clinical significance of rectal temperature in dogs. Bland-Altman plots showed that the confidence intervals of the mean differences of axillary and inguinal temperatures did not include the value zero, thereby indicating that the tested methods lack agreement with rectal temperature. Sensitivity and specificity for the detection of hyperthermia with axillary temperature were 72.1% and 30.5%, respectively. In contrast, sensitivity and specificity for the detection of hyperthermia with inguinal temperature were 77.9% and 26.2%, respectively. The magnitude of disagreement between axillary, inguinal and rectal temperatures was affected by age, breed and sex being slightly lower in mature, non-native breed and female dogs. Axillary and inguinal temperature measurements in dogs significantly underestimated rectal temperature measurements by -0.39 ± 0.02°C and -0.34± 0.02°C, respectively. The results indicate that axillary and inguinal temperatures should not be used as a replacement for rectal temperature due to the wide limits of agreement. In addition, axillary and inguinal temperatures may not be suitable in detecting hyperthermia because the sensitivity were lower than the required set-point of 90.0% for clinical identification of hyperthermia.

Comparison of <scp>ionised calcium</scp> measured using a portable analyser to a reference method in healthy dogs

To compare the ionised calcium measured on a portable analyser (iSTAT, Abbott) to a reference method. Blood samples from 39 apparently healthy dogs were analysed in duplicate using a portable analyser and a reference method (Radiometer ABL800 FLEX). Bland-Altman plots and Passing-Bablok regression were used to assess constant and proportional bias between the two instruments. A within-assay percentage coefficient of variation and total error (TE) was calculated for both analysers. The reference interval was calculated for the portable analyser using the robust method with confidence interval bootstrapping. The Bland-Altman plot showed a -0.036 mmol/L difference between the two instruments (95% confidence limit -0.08 to 0.01 mmol/L; limits of agreement -0.07 to 0.006 mmol/L). Neither the Bland-Altman plot nor the Passing-Bablock regression (slope -0.03; 95% confidence interval -0.08 to 0.19 and intercept 1; 95% confidence interval 0.83 to 1.2) showed significant proportional bias. The coefficient of variation for the portable analyser was 1.08%, compared to 0.78% for the reference method with a total error of 3.5% for the portable analyser. The estimated population-based reference interval for ionised calcium using the portable analyser is 1.23 to 1.42 mmol/L. For the healthy dogs in this study, compared to the reference method, the portable analyser showed no significant bias for measurement of ionised calcium. Further studies including hyper and hypocalcaemic dogs are required to determine clinical impact of the use of this analyser.