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Multi-perspectivity and the risk of perpetration minimisation in Dutch Holocaust and slavery education

ABSTRACT The Dutch perpetrated in both the Holocaust and chattel slavery. However, Dutch cultural memory does not significantly recognize Dutch perpetration in these sensitive histories. This article explores the interplay between cultural memory and history education as a potential explanation for this oversight, by specifically focusing on the implementation of multi-perspectivity. In Dutch history education, multi-perspectivity is valued, yet scholars have warned that it could contribute to minimization of perpetration. The deliberate choice of a qualitative research approach, as opposed to the more common textbook analysis, served to centre history teachers’ perspectives and allowed for a comprehensive analysis of their descriptions of multi-perspectivity in Holocaust and slavery education. This exploration further substantiated the concern regarding the risk of perpetration minimization. It reveals that history teachers predominantly approach multi-perspectivity in Holocaust and slavery education through teaching respectively historical empathy and positionality. Stimulating historical empathy and emphasizing positionality with pupils affect the presentation of historical distance and perpetration. Through these approaches teachers risk providing pupils with the understanding that everyone, including perpetrators, can be seen as victims of their historical circumstances, making it challenging to assign moral responsibility. To address this risk of perpetration minimization, this article explores underlying causes and offers recommendations.

Mentor teachers’ professional vision: A study of the differences with classroom teachers and student teachers

ABSTRACT A crucial competence for mentor teachers is the ability to analyse classroom practices as they are expected to model effective teaching practices and to provide feedback to student teachers. This ability is referred to in the literature as professional vision. The present study assesses mentor teachers’ (n = 137) professional vision regarding teacher-student interactions and differentiated instruction, using a validated video-based comparative judgement measurement instrument. The results indicate that mentor teachers have a high professional vision. It can thus be assumed that mentor teachers can support student teachers. Additionally, their professional vision is compared with that of classroom teachers (n = 996) and student teachers (n = 2168), expecting it to be significantly higher than that of classroom teachers and student teachers. The results show no significant difference between mentor teachers and classroom teachers but a significant difference between mentor teachers and student teachers. Hence, mentor teachers and classroom teachers are equally able to identify and interpret crucial aspects of effective teaching behaviour and both groups are better able than student teachers in this regard. This study contributes to the current state of the art on mentor teachers from a theoretical, empirical and methodological point of view.

Minding the gaps: the politics of differentiation in Swedish education from 1842 to the 1960s

ABSTRACT The concept of differentiation holds immense significance in education, touching upon aspects like access, inclusion, justice, and equality. However, it is also a complex and elusive notion, which acquires different meanings across historical and cultural contexts. This article explores the shifting reasoning about differentiation in the Swedish educational context. Inspired by Foucault’s account of disciplinary power, it conceptualizes differentiation as a technique for marking and addressing gaps between individuals. Drawing on an analysis of governmental and scholarly reports from 1842 to the late 1960s, the article identifies three shifts in the reasoning on differentiation: 1) from differentiation by socioeconomic class as a given factor to the search for scientific rationales for differentiation based on measurement of intellectual ability, 2) from viewing differences in intelligence as biologically conditioned and stable to viewing them as amenable to training and correction through education, and 3) from a focus on inputs to a focus on outputs. Overall, the article argues that even if the term ‘differentiation’ itself has been discursively replaced by others, the ideas underlying it—the search for gaps—continue to shape education in Sweden and beyond.

Open Access