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Characterization of lesions of nutritional congenital goitre in cattle.

There are few studies that classify and characterize the morphometric and immunohistochemical features of goitre in bovine thyroid glands (TGs). We investigated 39 bovine TGs (fetuses [9], stillbirths [18], neonates [12]) born to dams with low T4 hormone levels and no iodine supplementation and 10 (fetuses [3], stillbirths [3], neonates [4]) born to dams with normal T4 levels and supplemented with iodine. Body weight (BW), TG weight (TGW), TGW:BW ratio and histological lesions were determined. The TGs were classified histopathologically as normal gland (G0), mild goitre (G1), moderate goitre (G2) or severe goitre (G3). Various morphological and morphometric parameters were calculated from microscopic images using image analysis software. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). There were significant differences in the TGW:BW ratio among groups (P<0.05): 0.3±0.1 in G0, 0.5±0.3 in G1, 0.8±0.3 in G2 and 1.3±0.7 in G3. In G0, large homogeneous follicles with eosinophilic colloid were seen. In the groups with lesions (G1, G2 and G3), heterogeneity in follicle shape and size, height and area of thyroid follicular cells, height of thyroid follicular epithelium and PCNA immunolabelling were directly related to histopathological grade, with significant differences among groups (P<0.001), gradually increasing from G1 to G3 compared with G0. The TGW:BW ratio and histological grade were positively correlated (P=0.008).

Chronic mandibular osteomyelitis associated with a novel probable Kocuria sp in a sugar glider (Petaurus breviceps).

Dental disease in sugar gliders (Petaurus breviceps) is understudied, with only limited clinical and pathological data available. An approximately 7-year-old female sugar glider presented to its primary care veterinarian for a decline in food intake, rapid weight loss and a mass involving the rostral mandible. At necropsy, the mandibular mass effaced most of the rostral mandible and adjacent musculature. Histologically, the mandible was disrupted by nodular infiltrates of variably degenerate neutrophils and macrophages encased in granulomatous inflammation and fibrous connective tissue. Within the neutrophilic cell population were segments of fragmented, necrotic bone and cloud-like colonies of gram-positive cocci. Aerobic culture yielded a heavy, pure growth of a gram-positive coccus morphologically consistent with those identified in the lesions, which was identified as a presumptively novel Kocuria sp by polymerase chain reaction and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. This is the first description of Kocuria infection in association with clinically significant pathology in an animal. Although isolated as a pure growth, Kocuria sp cannot be confirmed as the sole cause of lesion formation due to the case chronicity and potential for unculturable, polymicrobial infections. This report adds to our understanding of the clinical and pathological aspects of dental disease in sugar gliders.

Immunohistochemical study of CD31 and α-SMA expression for age estimation of porcine skin wounds.

Age estimation of wounds in veterinary forensic investigations is based on the presence and amount of granulation tissue. However, accurate age assessment is challenging and new time-dependent markers are warranted to support and improve the current procedure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the expression of CD31-positive blood vessels and α-smooth muscle action (α-SMA)-positive myofibroblasts in granulation tissue in order to evaluate their value as markers for porcine wound age estimation in a veterinary forensic context. Immunohistochemical expression of CD31 and α-SMA in 14 experimental porcine skin wounds of different ages (4, 6, 8, 10, 18, 27 and 35 days) and 11 forensic porcine wound specimens (of unknown age) were evaluated. CD31-positive blood vessels and α-SMA-positive myofibroblasts were present in the granulation tissue in the experimental wounds at all time points. A significant decrease in the mean blood vessel counts was found in wounds aged 18, 27 and 35 days compared with wounds aged 6 days (P<0.001), when assessing both the superficial and deep part of the wound bed. α-SMA expression was lower at 27 and 35 days post wounding compared with 6-18 days post wounding. Combined assessment of three parameters (mean blood vessel counts in the superficial and deep wound beds and α-SMA expression) could approximately specify the age of the wounds as either 6-18 days or ≥27 days. In two of the forensic cases a combination of the three parameters yielded results that were similar to the experimental wounds, indicating a wound age of 6-18 days or ≥27 days, respectively. In the remaining forensic cases a combination of the three parameters did not show the same expression pattern as in the experimental wounds. The results indicate that in some forensic cases the application of CD31 and α-SMA markers appeared to support the current procedure for porcine wound age estimation, but this must be combined with pathological characteristics.

Activation of the Akt signalling pathway as a prognostic indicator in canine soft tissue sarcoma.

Canine soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is relatively common in dogs and is the generic term for tumours that originate from mesenchymal cells. While histopathological grade and immunolabelling with Ki-67 have been used for estimating prognosis, additional indicators are needed for predicting prognosis. Aberrant cell signalling pathways may contribute to disease activity and, therefore, prognostic markers. However, their role in canine STS remains poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate expression of phosphorylated Akt (phospho-Akt) and phosphorylated S6 (phospho-S6) as potential prognostic indicators. Immunohistochemical labelling was conducted on clinical samples of canine STS (n=67). We found that phospho-Akt expression was positively correlated with histopathological grade (P=0.001) and Ki-67 index (P<0.01). There was no apparent relationship between the type of STS and the expression of phospho-Akt. The number of cases that expressed phospho-S6, which is the downstream molecule of the Akt signalling pathway, was higher in immunopositive phospho-Akt cases than in immunonegative phospho-Akt cases (P<0.0001). Furthermore, phospho-Akt expression was significantly higher in recurrent and metastatic cases. We also confirmed that phosphorylation of Akt occurred in conjunction with S6 phosphorylation in three canine STS cell lines. These results suggest that immunolabelling for phospho-Akt, phospho-S6 and Ki-67 could potentially be used as a prognostic indicator and therapeutic target in canine STS.