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Efficacy and safety of clozapine in treatment-resistant psychotic patients with DiGeorge syndrome (22q11.2 deletion syndrome): a case series.

Neuropsychiatric disorders are common manifestations in 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS-DiGeorge Syndrome). Although many patients with 22q11.2DS receive antipsychotic treatment for psychotic disorders, little is known about the safety and tolerability of antipsychotics in 22q11.2DS and resistant psychosis. The aim of this case series is to describe the effectiveness as well as safety and tolerability profile coming from the real-world observation of three clinical cases affected by 22q11.2DS and treatment-resistant psychosis. We administered the following tests: the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale, the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety, the Positive and Negative Severity Scale, the Clinical Global Impression-Severity Scale, the Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, the Beck Depression Inventory and the Beck Hopelessness Scale. All these questionnaires were administered at the first visit (T0), and then 3 (T1) 6 (T2) and 12 months after (T3). We observed a clinical improvement that remained stable at 12 months. Furthermore, in our patients, the clinical effectiveness was achieved with a very low dose of clozapine (<150 mg/day) concerning the standard dose used in idiopathic schizophrenia (>300 mg/day to 600 mg/day).

Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with manic morbidity in elderly patients with mood disorders.

The association between mood disorders, especially bipolar disorder (BD), and metabolic disorders, is long known. However, to which extent metabolic disorders affect the course of mood disorders in late life is still open to inquiring. To assess the impact of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) on late-life mood disorders a retrospective chart review was performed. Elderly depressive patients (≥ 65 years) diagnosed with Major Depressive Disorder (N = 57) or BD (N = 43) and followed up for at least 18 months were included and subdivided according to the presence of T2DM comorbidity. Vascular encephalopathy (39.1% vs. 15.6%, P = 0.021) and neurocognitive disorders (21.7% vs. 5.2%, P = 0.028), were more frequently reported in patients with T2DM than in those without. Patients with T2DM showed a greater percentage of follow-up time in manic episodes (r = -0.23, P = 0.020) and a higher rate of manic episode(s) during follow-up (21.7% vs. 5.2%, P = 0.028) than those without. When restricting longitudinal analyses to patients with bipolar spectrum disorders, results were confirmed. In line with the well-known connection between BD and metabolic disorders, our data support an association between T2DM and unfavorable course of illness in the elderly with BD.

Sociodemographic and clinical factors associated with prescription of first- versus second-generation long-acting antipsychotics in incarcerated adult males.

Information on patterns of prescription of long-acting injection (LAI) antipsychotics among people who are incarcerated is lacking. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate prescribing rates for first-generation antipsychotic (FGA)-LAI versus second-generation antipsychotic (SGA)-LAI and to identify the factors associated with the prescription of one of the two classes of LAI. A cross-sectional study was conducted among incarcerated adult males hosted in Monza detention center between January 2013 and April 2023. Socio-demographic and clinical data were retrospectively collected. Descriptive and univariate statistics as well as logistic regression analyses were performed. Data were available for 135 consecutive incarcerated adult males with different mental disorders who received a LAI as part of their treatment. 75.6% of our sample was treated with FGA-LAIs, with haloperidol as the most commonly prescribed drug, followed by zuclopentixol and aripiprazole. Diagnosis of bipolar disorder and concomitant administration of antidepressants were statistically significant predictors of SGA-LAI prescription. Some patients' characteristics may influence prescription patterns in prison. Further longitudinal studies with larger samples should confirm these findings.

Efficacy and safety of agomelatine versus SSRIs/SNRIs for post-stroke depression: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Agomelatine is effective in the treatment of depression, but its effect for post-stroke depression (PSD) remains unclear. This study was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of agomelatine versus SSRIs/SNRIs in treating PSD. We systematically searched Embase, PubMed, Cochrane Library, WanFang Data, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Cqvip databases for double-blind randomized controlled studies comparing the efficacy and safety of agomelatine versus SSRIs/SNRIs for PSD until December 2022. The primary efficacy endpoint was the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) score, and the primary safety endpoint was the incidence of overall adverse reactions. Nine studies comprising 857 patients with PSD were included. After 6-12 weeks of treatment, the HAMD score (P = 0.16) and the overall response rates (P = 0.20) in the agomelatine group were comparable to that in the SSRIs/SNRIs group. Participants treated with agomelatine achieved higher Barthel Index scores compared with the SSRIs/SNRIs group (P = 0.02). There was a significantly lower incidence of overall adverse reactions (P = 0.008) and neurological adverse reactions (P < 0.0001) in the agomelatine group. The efficacy of agomelatine for treating PSD is probably comparable to that of SSRIs/SNRIs, and it may improve stroke outcomes with better safety.

The relationship between mobile phone addiction and depression, anxiety, and sleep quality in medical students.

This study investigates the prevalence of mobile phone addiction among medical students and its relationship with depression, anxiety, and sleep quality. The study was conducted at Mashhad University of Medical Sciences from 2019 to 2021, and it included medical students at four different levels of training. Participants were selected using a stratified random sampling method. All subjects completed the Mobile Phone Addiction Scale, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Beck Depression Inventory, and Beck Anxiety Inventory through online electronic self-report questionnaires. Overall, 355 medical students were included in the study, with 203 (57.2%) being female. Mild and severe mobile phone addiction was reported by 83.7 and 2.5% of the students, respectively. Furthermore, the study's findings revealed significantly higher sleep quality disorder, depression, and anxiety scores among students with severe mobile phone addiction compared to other participants (P < 0.001, P = 0.007, and P < 0.001, respectively). Although mobile phone addiction was prevalent, severe addiction was rare among medical students. Nevertheless, severe addiction was associated with an increased prevalence of mental health problems and sleep disturbances, emphasizing the importance of interventions aimed at reducing mobile phone addiction and improving mental health.

Differentiating the third generation of antipsychotics: a focus on lumateperone's similarities and differences.

The development of atypical antipsychotics has evolved to include newer pharmacodynamic properties. Lumateperone, aripiprazole, brexpiprazole, and cariprazine are all dopamine-2 receptor partial agonists with varying receptor affinities. This review aims to compare the clinical and pharmacodynamic differences among these four atypical antipsychotics, all of which are unique when compared to first- and second-generation antipsychotics. For consideration is further delineating these agents as being third-generation antipsychotics. PubMed searches were conducted to compile preclinical and clinical studies derived from animal models and human subjects. Information gathered included pharmacological mechanisms, clinical efficacy, future-oriented clinical approaches, and adverse effects. Efficacy for the shared indications of these drugs seems comparable. Differences among these drugs lie more in their adverse effect profiles. For example, lumateperone was found to have the lowest rate of weight gain while brexpiprazole was found to have the highest rate of weight gain associated with increased appetite. Aripiprazole had the lowest rates of extrapyramidal symptoms not including akathisia while cariprazine had the highest. All four agents reviewed have a variety of receptor affinities, which likely generates a variety of different adverse effects. This suggests that in any given patient, clinicians may see differential clinical effects.

Mental health in patients affected by atopic dermatitis: which effects of treatment with dupilumab?

Atopic dermatitis (AD) is an inflammatory skin disease. Patients with AD are prone to develop anxiety and mood disorders. Aim of this study is to investigate if treatment with dupilumab may improve mental health status of patients affected by AD. A total of 66 patients with severe AD were included: 24 subjects were candidate or have just started (one month) treatment with dupilumab, and 42 have been in treatment for one year. 25.8%, 30.3%, and 45.5% of the total sample showed, respectively, clinically significant anxiety, depression, and symptoms of Internet addiction. Patients with anxiety symptoms resulted to have more severe AD, more sleep problems (P = 0.028), less quality of life (P = 0.001), more severe depressive symptoms (P < 0.001), to be more frequently women (P = 0.016), to be less frequently treated with dupilumab for one year (P = 0.025). Similarly, patients with clinically significant depressive symptoms resulted to have more severe AD, more sleep problems (P = 0.003), less quality of life (P < 0.001), more severe anxiety symptoms (P < 0.001), to be less frequently treated with dupilumab for one year (P = 0.008). Patients with AD treated for one year with dupilumab showed a better mental health profile in terms of less severe anxiety and depression with respect to their counterparts.

Efficacy of cariprazine in patients with bipolar depression and higher or lower levels of baseline anxiety: a pooled post hoc analysis.

Post hoc analyses evaluated cariprazine, a dopamine D 3 -preferring D 3 /D 2 receptor partial agonist, in patients with bipolar I depression and high baseline anxiety. Data were pooled from two phase 3, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies in adults with bipolar I disorder and a major depressive episode (NCT02670538, NCT02670551). Cariprazine 1.5 and 3 mg/d were evaluated in patient subgroups with higher and lower baseline anxiety. In patients with higher baseline anxiety, significant differences for cariprazine 1.5 mg/d versus placebo were observed on change in Montgomery-Åsberg Rating Scale (MADRS) total score, Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale (HAM-A) total score and subscale scores, and rates of MADRS remission ( P < 0.05 all); nonsignificant numerical improvements were observed for cariprazine 3 mg/d versus placebo. In patients with lower anxiety, differences versus placebo were significant for HAM-A (cariprazine 3 mg/d) and MADRS (cariprazine 1.5 and 3 mg/d) total score changes ( P < 0.05 all). Rates of treatment-emergent mania were low and similar for cariprazine and placebo. Cariprazine 1.5 mg/d had consistent effects on anxiety and depression symptoms in patients with bipolar I depression and higher baseline anxiety; tolerability was favorable. Given few proven treatments for this common comorbidity, these preliminary results are promising.

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