Cover illustration: The cover image is based on the Technical Note A CRISPR/Cas9‐engineered mouse carrying a conditional knockout allele for the early growth response‐1 transcription factor by Vineet K. Maurya et al., https://doi.org/10.1002/dvg.23515.image
Spatio‐temporal control of targeted gene expression in combination with <scp>CRISPR</scp>/Cas and <scp>Tet‐On</scp> systems in Medaka
Spatial and temporal control of transgene expression is a powerful approach to understand gene functions in specific cells and tissues. The Tet-On system is a robust tool for controlling transgene expression spatially and temporally; however, few studies have examined whether this system can be applied to postembryonic stages of Medaka (Oryzias latipes) or other fishes. Here, we first improved a basal promoter sequence on the donor vector for a nonhomologous end joining (NHEJ)-based knock-in (KI) system. Next, using transgenic Medaka for establishing the Tet-On system by KI, we demonstrated that doxycycline administration for four or more days by feeding can be a stable and efficient method to achieve expression of the transduced reporter gene in adult fish. From these analyses, we propose an optimized approach for a spatio-temporal gene-expression system in the adult stage of Medaka and other small fishes.
- Citations: 1
- May 25, 2023
genesisVolume 61, Issue 1-2 e23480 ISSUE INFORMATIONFree Access Issue Information First published: 23 March 2023 https://doi.org/10.1002/dvg.23480AboutPDF ToolsRequest permissionExport citationAdd to favoritesTrack citation ShareShare Give accessShare full text accessShare full-text accessPlease review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article.I have read and accept the Wiley Online Library Terms and Conditions of UseShareable LinkUse the link below to share a full-text version of this article with your friends and colleagues. Learn more.Copy URL Share a linkShare onFacebookTwitterLinkedInRedditWechat No abstract is available for this article. Volume61, Issue1-2March 2023e23480 RelatedInformation
- Citations: 0
- Mar 1, 2023
Generation and characterization of a <scp>Ddx4‐iCre</scp> transgenic line for deletion in the germline beginning at genital ridge colonization
Germline-specific Cre lines are useful for analyses of primordial germ cell, spermatogonial and oogonial development, but also for whole-body deletions when transmitted through subsequent generations. Several germ cell specific Cre mouse strains exist, with various degrees of specificity, efficiency, and temporal activation. Here, we describe the CRISPR/Cas9 targeted insertion of an improved Cre (iCre) sequence in-frame at the 3' end of the Ddx4 locus to generate the Ddx4-P2A-iCre allele. Our functional assessment of this new allele, designated Ddx4iCreJoBo , reveals that Cre activity begins in PGCs from at least E10.5, and that it achieves higher efficiency for early gonadal (E10.5-12.5) germline deletion when compared to the inducible Oct4CreERT2 line. We found the Ddx4iCreJoBo allele to be hypomorphic for Ddx4 expression and homozygous males, but not females, were infertile. Using two reporter lines (R26RLacZ and R26RtdTomato ) and a floxed gene of interest (Criptoflox ) we found ectopic activity in multiple organs; global recombination (a common feature of germline Cre alleles) varies from 10 to 100%, depending on the particular floxed allele. There is a strong maternal effect, and therefore it is preferable for Ddx4iCreJoBo to be inherited from the male parent if ubiquitous deletion is not desired. With these limitations considered, we describe the Ddx4iCreJoBo line as useful for germline studies in which early gonadal deletion is required.
- Citations: 0
- Jan 24, 2023
A knockout‐first model of <i>H3f3a</i> gene targeting leads to developmental lethality
Histone variant H3.3 is encoded by two genes, H3f3a and H3f3b, which can be expressed differentially depending on tissue type. Previous work in our lab has shown that knockout of H3f3b causes some neonatal lethality and infertility in mice, and chromosomal defects in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Studies of H3f3a and H3f3b null mice by others have produced generally similar phenotypes to what we found in our H3f3b nulls, but the relative impacts of the loss of either H3f3a or H3f3b have varied depending on the approach and genetic background. Here we used a knockout-first approach to target the H3f3a gene for inactivation in C57BL6 mice. Homozygous H3f3a targeting produced a lethal phenotype at or before birth. E13.5 null embryos had some potential morphological differences from WT littermates including smaller size and reduced head size. An E18.5 null embryowas smaller than its control littermates with several potential defects including small head and brain size as well as small lungs, which would be consistent with a late gestation lethal phenotype. Despite a reduction in H3.3 and total H3 protein levels, the only histone H3 post-translational modification in the small panel assessed that was significantly altered was the unique H3.3 mark phospho-Serine31, which was consistently increased in null neurospheres. H3f3a null neurospheres also exhibited consistent gene expression changes including in protocadherins. Overall, our findings are consistent with the model that there are differential, cell-type-specific contributions of H3f3a and H3f3b to H3.3 functions in epigenetic and developmental processes.
- Citations: 4
- Jan 19, 2023
Augmentation of bone morphogenetic protein signaling in cranial neural crest cells in mice deforms skull base due to premature fusion of intersphenoidal synchondrosis
Craniofacial anomalies (CFAs) are a diverse group of disorders affecting the shapes of the face and the head. Malformation of the cranial base in humans leads CFAs, such as midfacial hypoplasia and craniosynostosis. These patients have significant burdens associated with breathing, speaking, and chewing. Invasive surgical intervention is the current primary option to correct these structural deficiencies. Understanding molecular cellular mechanism for craniofacial development would provide novel therapeutic options for CFAs. In this study, we found that enhanced bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling in cranial neural crest cells (NCCs) (P0-Cre;caBmpr1a mice) causes premature fusion of intersphenoid synchondrosis (ISS) resulting in leading to short snouts and hypertelorism. Histological analyses revealed reduction of proliferation and higher cell death in ISS at postnatal day 3. We demonstrated to prevent the premature fusion of ISS in P0-Cre;caBmpr1a mice by injecting a p53 inhibitor Pifithrin-α to the pregnant mother from E15.5 to E18.5, resulting in rescue from short snouts and hypertelorism. We further demonstrated to prevent premature fusion of cranial sutures in P0-Cre;caBmpr1a mice by injecting Pifithrin-α through E8.5 to E18.5. These results suggested that enhanced BMP-p53-induced cell death in cranial NCCs causes premature fusion of ISS and sutures in time-dependent manner.
- Citations: 2
- Jan 9, 2023
Tailup expression in <scp><i>Drosophila</i></scp> larval and adult cardiac valve cells
In Drosophila larvae, the direction of blood flow within the heart tube, as well as the diastolic filling of the posterior heart chamber, is regulated by a single cardiac valve. This valve is sufficient to close the heart tube at the junction of the ventricle and the aorta and is formed by only two cells; both are integral parts of the heart tube. The valve cells regulate hemolymph flow by oscillating between a spherical and a flattened cell shape during heartbeats. At the spherical stage, the opposing valve cells close the heart lumen. The dynamic cell shape changes of valve cells are supported by a dense, criss-cross orientation of myofibrils and the presence of the valvosomal compartment, a large intracellular cavity. Both structures are essential for the valve cells' function. In a screen for factors specifically expressed in cardiac valve cells, we identified the transcription factor Tailup. Knockdown of tailup causes abnormal orientation and differentiation of cardiac muscle fibers in the larval aorta and inhibits the formation of the ventral longitudinal muscle layer located underneath the heart tube in the adult fly and affects myofibrillar orientation of valve cells. Furthermore, we have identified regulatory sequences of tup that control the expression of tailup in the larval and adult valve cells.
- Citations: 1
- Dec 22, 2022
Precise modulation of embryonic development through optogenetics
The past decade has witnessed enormous progress in optogenetics, which uses photo-sensitive proteins to control signal transduction in live cells and animals. The ever-increasing amount of optogenetic tools, however, could overwhelm the selection of appropriate optogenetic strategies. In this work, we summarize recent progress in this emerging field and highlight the application of opsin-free optogenetics in studying embryonic development, focusing on new insights gained into optical induction of morphogenesis, cell polarity, cell fate determination, tissue differentiation, neuronal regeneration, synaptic plasticity, and removal of cells during development.
- Citations: 2
- Dec 1, 2022
Genome‐wide analysis of bivalent histone modifications during <i>Drosophila</i> embryogenesis
In eukaryotes, histone modifications are key epigenetic regulators that are associated with distinct chromatin features. Bivalent histone modifications describe a situation where a subset of promoters have with both activating (H3K4me3) and repressive (H3K27me3) markers in pluripotent cells (e.g., ESCs). However, it remains to be understood whether bivalent histone modifications are stable throughout developmental stages. Here, by systematically analyzing ChIP-seq data of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3, we provided the first panoramic view of bivalent histone modifications in Drosophila from embryonic 0-4 to 20-24 hr. In our study, we found that bivalent histone modifications occur at other locations in the genome in addition to the promoter region. Additionally, the different genomic regions occupied by bivalent histone modifications exhibit spatiotemporal specificity at each stage. Furthermore, gene ontology and motif analysis reflected continuous and gradual changes of target genes during different developmental process. In summary, we suggest that bivalent histone modifications have potential regulatory functions throughout Drosophila embryonic stage.
- Citations: 0
- Sep 20, 2022