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Calculation of Dark Matter as a Feature of Space–Time

We derive the first analytical formula for the density of "Dark Matter" (DM) at all length scales, thus also for the rotation curves of stars in galaxies, for the baryonic Tully–Fisher relation and for planetary systems, from Einstein's equations (EE) and classical approximations, in agreement with observations. DM is defined in Part I as the energy of the coherent gravitational field of the universe, represented by the additional equivalent ordinary matter (OM), needed at all length scales, to explain classically, with inclusion of the OM, the observed coherent gravitational field. Our derivation uses both EE and the Newtonian approximation of EE in Part I, to describe semi-classically in Part II the advection of DM, created at the level of the universe, into galaxies and clusters thereof. This advection happens proportional with their own classically generated gravitational field g, due to self-interaction of the gravitational field. It is based on the universal formula ρD = λgg′2 for the density ρD of DM advected into medium and lower scale structures of the observable universe, where λ is a universal constant fixed by the Tully–Fisher relations. Here g′ is the gravitational field of the universe; g′ is in main part its own source, as implied in Part I from EE. We start from a simple electromagnetic analogy that helps to make the paper generally accessible. This paper allows for the first time the exact calculation of DM in galactic halos and at all levels in the universe, based on EE and Newtonian approximations, in agreement with observations.

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