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Life history of Apocarchesium arndti Norf & Foissner, 2010 (Ciliophora, Peritrichia) including recognition of a novel type of zooid.

Apocarchesium rosettum and A. arndti were originally discovered in Japan (Lake Biwa) and Germany (River Rhine), respectively. We report the first record of A. arndti in the Danube and provide a detailed description of its colony development. Our findings support the theory of moderate endemicity and reveal a new, smaller zooid type in A. arndti. This zooid remains attached to the colony, connected to the stalk myoneme but lacks an aboral ciliary wreath. Unlike microzooids, it is incapable of leaving the colony. It exhibits a less spherical shape and arises from the fourth division of the colony-founder cell. Although its specific function is unknown, it is hypothesized to support the stalk dish. Our results have significant implications for understanding the systematics of vorticellids, suggesting their ancestral nature as colonial organisms characterized by a helically contracting stalk myoneme. Furthermore, the exclusive retention of the stalk myoneme by the parental cell after binary fission may serve as a synapomorphy for the Vorticellidae. We provide a descriptive analysis of the ecological environment and microhabitat of A. arndti in the Danube, revealing its preference for well-developed, detritus-rich biofilms during summer, absence in late winter and spring, emergence during peak summer, and subsequent decline until mid-winter.

Molecular characterization of methionine aminopeptidase1 from Eimeria tenella.

Coccidiosis, a serious intestinal parasitic disease caused by Eimeria spp., can result in huge annual economic losses to the poultry industry worldwide. At present, coccidiosis is mainly controlled by anticoccidial drugs. However, drug resistance has developed in Eimeria because of the long-term and unreasonable use of the drugs currently available. In our previous study, RNA-seq showed that the expression of methionine aminopeptidase1 (EtMetAP1) was up-regulated in diclazuril-resistant (DZR) and maduramicin-resistant (MRR) strains compared to drug-sensitive (DS) strain of Eimeria tenella. In this study, EtMetAP1 was cloned and expressed, and the function and characteristics of the EtMetAP1 protein were analyzed. The transcription and translation levels of EtMetAP1 in DS strain of E. tenella at different developmental stages were analyzed by qPCR and western blotting. We found that the transcription and translation levels of EtMetAP1 in second-generation merozoites (SM) were higher than those of the other three stages (unsporulated oocyst, sporulated oocyst, and sporozoites). Simultaneously, qPCR was used to analyze the mRNA transcription levels of EtMetAP1 in DS, DZR, MRR, and salinomycin-resistant (SMR) strain. The results showed that compared to the sensitive strain, the transcription levels of EtMetAP1 in DZR and MRR were up-regulated. There was no significant difference in transcription level in SMR. Indirect immunofluorescence localization showed that the protein was mainly localised in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of sporozoites and SM. An invasion inhibition test showed that anti-rEtMetAP1 polyclonal antibody could effectively inhibit the sporozoite invasion of host cells. These results suggest that the protein may be involved in the growth and development of parasites in host cells, the generation of drug resistance, and host cell invasion.

Silica-scaled heterotrophic protists: Rotosphaerida, Thaumatomonadida and Centroplasthelida in Arctic waters of Russia.

Maintaining high levels of biological diversity in various ecosystems is necessary for stable functioning of the Earth's biosphere. The article describes diversity and ecology of heterotrophic siliceous protists - rotosphaerids, colourless free-living thaumatomonad flagellates, and centrohelid heliozoans - in Arctic waters located of Asian Russia. Samples were collected in the mouths of the Olenyok, Yana, Indigirka, Kolyma Rivers - and small freshwater ponds near Settlement of Tiksi in Yakutia. Based on electron microscopy, 35 centrohelids (Heliozoa), 11 rotosphaerid species as well as four thaumatomonad flagellate species were found in the region. Seven species were recorded in Russia for the first time: Rabdiaster multicosta, Rabdiaster reticulata, Turriplaca denticulata, Choanocystis cf. cordiformis parvula, Raineriophrys pteromorphos, Pseudoraphidocystis glutinosa and Pseudoraphidiophrys formosa. For 43 species, the study area is the most northern location they were described. Morphological details of scales are discussed for selected species, particularly for widespread species of rotosphaerids - Pinaciophora fluviatilis. The literature on hydrochemical conditions was analyzed to find taxa with high sensitivity towards environmental changes. Such species could be further used for monitoring plankton, recovering evolutionary changes, and reconstructing past environments.