The impact of spontaneous portosystemic shunt (SPSS) on decompensated events and mortality for patients with hepatitis B-related cirrhosis remains poorly investigated.To evaluate the prevalence, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of SPSS among patients with hepatitis B-related cirrhosis.Patients who were diagnosed with hepatitis B-related cirrhosis were retrospectively recruited. All eligible patients were classified into SPSS and non-SPSS groups and their clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared and analyzed.Of the 1282 patients included in this study, SPSS was identified in 488 patients (38.1%). SPSS group had more severe liver function impairment, higher prevalence and severity of esophageal and gastric varices (EGV), and a higher prevalence of EGV bleeding (EGVB), portal vein thrombosis (PVT), hepatic encephalopathy (HE), ascites, and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, all P<0.05). During the follow-up period, SPSS group experienced a significantly higher incidence of EGVB, PVT, and HE (all P<0.05); however, there was no significant difference in the incidence of ascites, HCC, and mortality between the two groups (all P>0.05).With hepatitis B-related cirrhosis, SPSS was common and characterized by severe liver damage and a high prevalence of decompensated events. Moreover, patients with SPSS had higher risks of EGVB, PVT, and HE.
Genetic and non-genetic risk factors for early-onset pancreatic cancer
Early-onset pancreatic cancer (EOPC) represents 5-10% of all pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cases, and the etiology of this form is poorly understood. It is not clear if established PDAC risk factors have the same relevance for younger patients. This study aims to identify genetic and non-genetic risk factors specific to EOPC. A genome-wide association study was performed, analysing 912 EOPC cases and 10 222 controls, divided into discovery and replication phases. Furthermore, the associations between a polygenic risk score (PRS), smoking, alcohol consumption, type 2 diabetes and PDAC risk were also assessed. Six novel SNPs were associated with EOPC risk in the discovery phase, but not in the replication phase. The PRS, smoking, and diabetes affected EOPC risk. The OR comparing current smokers to never-smokers was 2.92 (95% CI 1.69-5.04, P=1.44×10-4). For diabetes, the corresponding OR was 14.95 (95% CI 3.41-65.50, P=3.58×10-4). In conclusion, we did not identify novel genetic variants associated specifically with EOPC, and we found that established PDAC risk variants do not have a strong age-dependent effect. Furthermore, we add to the evidence pointing to the role of smoking and diabetes in EOPC.
- Digestive and Liver Disease
- Citations: 6
- Oct 1, 2023