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Role of exosomes in transferring chemoresistance through modulation of cancer glycolytic cell metabolism.

Chemoresistance constitute a major obstacle in cancer treatment, leading to limited options and decreased patient survival. Recent studies have revealed a novel mechanism of chemoresistance acquisition: the transfer of information via exosomes, small vesicles secreted by various cells. Exosomes play a crucial role in intercellular communication by carrying proteins, nucleic acids, and metabolites, influencing cancer cell behavior and response to treatment. One crucial mechanism of resistance is cancer metabolic reprogramming, which involves alterations in the cellular metabolic pathways to support the survival and proliferation of drug-resistant cancer cells. This metabolic reprogramming often includes increased glycolysis, providing cancer cells with the necessary energy and building blocks to evade the effects of chemotherapy.Notably, exosomes have been found to transport glycolytic enzymes, as identified in proteomic profiling, leading to the reprogramming of metabolic pathways, facilitating altered glucose metabolism and increased lactate production. As a result, they profoundly impact the tumor microenvironment, promoting tumor progression, survival, immune evasion, and drug resistance.Understanding the complexities of such exosome-mediated cell-to-cell communication might open new therapeutic avenues and facilitate biomarker development in managing cancers characterized by aggressive glycolytic features. Moreover, given the intricate nature of metabolic abnormalities combining future exosome-based-targeted therapies with existing treatments like chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapies holds promise for achieving synergistic effects to overcome resistance and improve cancer treatment outcomes.

Open Access
Mechanisms of NLRP3 inflammasome activation and the development of peptide inhibitors.

The Nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain containing receptor 3 (NLRP3), a member of the nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD) like receptors (NLRs) family, plays an important role in the innate immune response against pathogen invasions. NLRP3 inflammasome consisting of NLRP3 protein, the adapter protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (CARD) (ASC), and the effector protein pro-caspase-1, is central to this process. Upon activation, NLRP3 inflammasome initiates the release of inflammatory cytokines and triggers a form of cell death known as pyroptosis. Dysregulation or inappropriate activation of NLRP3 has been implicated in various human diseases, including type 2 diabetes, colitis, depression, and gout. Consequently, understanding the mechanism underlying NLRP3 inflammasome activation is critical for the development of therapeutic drugs. In the pursuit of potential therapeutic agents, peptides present several advantages over small molecules. They offer higher selectivity, increased potency, reduced toxicity, and fewer off-target effects. The advancements in molecular biology have expanded the opportunities for applying peptides in medicine, unlocking their vast medical potential. This review begins by providing a comprehensive summary of recent research progress regarding the mechanisms governing NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Subsequently, we offer an overview of current peptide inhibitors capable of modulating the NLRP3 inflammasome activation pathway.

Liquid biopsy analysis of lipometabolic exosomes in pancreatic cancer.

Pancreatic cancer is characterized by its high malignancy, insidious onset and poor prognosis. Most patients with pancreatic cancer are usually diagnosed at advanced stage or with the distant metastasis due to the lack of an effective early screening method. Liquid biopsy technology is promising in studying the occurrence, progression, and early metastasis of pancreatic cancer. In particular, exosomes are pivotal biomarkers in lipid metabolism and liquid biopsy of blood exosomes is valuable for the evaluation of pancreatic cancer. Lipid metabolism is crucial for the formation and activity of exosomes in the extracellular environment. Exosomes and lipids have a complex relationship of mutual influence. Furthermore, spatial metabolomics can quantify the levels and spatial locations of individual metabolites in cancer tissue, cancer stroma, and para-cancerous tissue in pancreatic cancer. However, the relationship among exosomes, lipid metabolism, and pancreatic cancer is also worth considering. This study mainly updates the research progress of metabolomics in pancreatic cancer, their relationship with exosomes, an important part of liquid biopsy, and their lipometabolic roles in pancreatic cancer. We also discuss the mechanisms by which possible metabolites, especially lipid metabolites through exosome transport and other processes, contribute to the recurrence and metastasis of pancreatic cancer.

Proteomics analysis of circulating small extracellular vesicles: Focus on the contribution of EVs to tumor metabolism.

The term small extracellular vesicle (sEV) is a comprehensive term that includes any type of cell-derived, membrane-delimited particle that has a diameter <200nm, and which includes exosomes and smaller microvesicles. sEVs transfer bioactive molecules between cells and are crucial for cellular homeostasis and particularly during tumor development, where sEVs provide important contributions to the formation of the premetastic niche and to their altered metabolism. sEVs are thus legitimate targets for intervention and have also gained increasing interest as an easily accessible source of biomarkers because they can be rapidly isolated from serum/plasma and their molecular cargo provides information on their cell-of origin. To target sEVs that are specific for a given cell/disease it is essential to identify EV surface proteins that are characteristic of that cell/disease. Mass-spectrometry based proteomics is widely used for the identification and quantification of sEV proteins. The methods used for isolating the sEVs, preparing the sEV sample for proteomics analysis, and mass spectrometry analysis, can have a strong influence on the results and requires careful consideration. This review provides an overview of the approaches used for sEV proteomics and discusses the inherent compromises regarding EV purity versus depth of coverage. Additionally, it discusses the practical applications of the methods to unravel the involvement of sEVs in regulating the metabolism of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The metabolic reprogramming in PDAC includes enhanced glycolysis, elevated glutamine metabolism, alterations in lipid metabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction and hypoxia, all of which are crucial in promoting tumor cell growth. A thorough understanding of these metabolic adaptations is imperative for the development of targeted therapies to exploit PDAC's vulnerabilities.

Immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment and uterine fibroids: Role in collagen synthesis.

Uterine fibroids (UF), also called uterine leiomyoma, is one of the most prevalent uterine tumors. UF represents a serious women's health global problem with a significant physical, emotional, and socioeconomic impact. Risk factors for UF include racial disparities, age, race, hormonal factors, obesity, and lifestyle (diet, physical activity, and stress. There are several biological contributors to UF pathogenesis such as cellular proliferation, angiogenesis, and extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation. This review addresses tumor immune microenvironment as a novel mediator of ECM deposition. Polarization of immune microenvironment towards the immunosuppressive phenotype has been associated with ECM deposition. Immunosuppressive cells include M2 macrophage, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs), and Th17 cells, and their secretomes include interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-10, IL-13, IL-17, IL-22, arginase 1, and transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β1). The change in the immune microenvironment not only increase tumor growth but also aids in collagen synthesis and ECM disposition, which is one of the main hallmarks of UF pathogenesis. This review invites further investigations on the change in the UF immune microenvironment as well as a novel targeting approach instead of the traditional UF hormonal and supportive treatment.

Exosomes: Another intercellular lipometabolic communication mediators in digestive system neoplasms?

Neoplasms are one of the most concerned public health problems worldwide. Digestive system neoplasms, with a high morbidity and mortality, is one of the most common malignant tumors in human being. It is found that exosomes act as an intercellular communication media to carry the metabolic and genetic information of parental cells to target cells. Likely, exosomes participate in lipid metabolism and regulates multiple processes in digestive system neoplasms, including the information transmission among cancer cells, the formation of neoplastic microenvironment, and the neoplastic biological behaviors like metastasis, invasion, and the chemotherapy resistance. In this review, we firstly introduce the main mechanisms whereas exosomes act as intercellular lipometabolic communication mediator in digestive system neoplasms. Thereafter we introduce the relationship between exosomes lipid metabolism and various type of digestive system neoplasms, including gastric cancer, hepatocellular carcinoma, pancreatic cancer, and colorectal cancer. Eventually, we summarized and prospected the development and implication of exosomes in digestive system neoplasms. The further research of exosomes as intercellular lipid metabolism mediator will contribute to accurate and efficient diagnosis and treatment of digestive system neoplasms.