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Chronic pelvic pain; more than just the bladder.

Chronic pelvic pain is much of a burden to those who suffer from it. Additionally, in many patients medical doctors, such as urologists are unable to identify a cause or clear pathology that can explain the pain. Still numerous patients and doctors keep on searching for a cause, focussing particularly on the pelvic organs. Lots of diagnostics and treatment methods are used but often without success. In recent years, we have gained increased insight into the mechanisms of pain and adapted the terminology accordingly. Two aspects of chronic pelvic pain have gained more attention. First, the myofascial aspects, especially the role of the pelvic floor muscles in maintaining the pain and as a therapeutic option. Second, the role of the brain and the psychological aspects intertwine with the pain and its consequences also open up for alternative management options. In terminology chronic pain is now included in the ICD-11, a historical change. Introducing chronic primary pain (no cause found) helps us to look away from the organ and deal with the patient as a whole human being. The findings reported here are helpful for your daily practice. Looking from a broad perspective gives the patient the feeling of being seen and heard. Working together in a multidisciplinary team makes your work easier and gives more satisfaction. http://links.lww.com/COU/A44.

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Prognostic impact of serum testosterone in metastatic hormone-naive prostate cancer: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

In daily practice, there is an unmet medical need for biomarkers that facilitate therapeutic decision-making in the metastatic hormone sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC) scenario. Although recent studies have highlighted the potential of testosterone as a prognostic and predictive marker in prostate cancer, the evidence is controversial. The objective of this review was to summarize and analyze the scientific evidence regarding the prognostic role of basal testosterone levels in patients with mHSPC. A systematic review was performed. Three authors selected the articles from Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library electronic databases. Risk of bias was assessed by the Newcastle Ottawa Scale. Most of the selected articles suggest that low testosterone levels before starting hormonal blockade imply a worse prognosis for patients with mHSPC. However, the quality of the evidence is poor, the studies are heterogeneous, and it is not possible to meta-analyze most of the published results. Testosterone is an accessible and affordable biomarker. If it were correctly demonstrated that it harbors a prognostic and/or predictive role in the mHSPC setting, it could represent an advance in decision-making in these patients. Well designed prospective studies are needed to correctly answer this question.

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Research on texture images and radiomics in urology: a review of urological MR imaging applications.

Tumor volume and heterogenicity are associated with diagnosis and prognosis of urological cancers, and assessed by conventional imaging. Quantitative imaging, Radiomics, using advanced mathematical analysis may contain information imperceptible to the human eye, and may identify imaging-based biomarkers, a new field of research for individualized medicine. This review summarizes the recent literature on radiomics in kidney and prostate cancers and the future perspectives. Radiomics studies have been developed and showed promising results in diagnosis, in characterization, prognosis, treatment planning and recurrence prediction in kidney tumors and prostate cancer, but its use in guiding clinical decision-making remains limited at present due to several limitations including lack of external validations in most studies, lack of prospective studies and technical standardization. Future challenges, besides developing prospective and validated studies, include automated segmentation using artificial intelligence deep learning networks and hybrid radiomics integrating clinical data, combining imaging modalities and genomic features. It is anticipated that these improvements may allow identify these noninvasive, imaging-based biomarkers, to enhance precise diagnosis, improve decision-making and guide tailored treatment.

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Detection of urological cancers by the signature of organic volatile compounds in urine, from dogs to electronic noses.

Urine volatile organic compound (VOC) testing for early detection of urological cancers is a minimally invasive and promising method. The objective of this review was to present the results of recently published work on this subject. Organic volatile compounds are produced through oxidative stress and peroxidation of cell membranes, and they are eliminated through feces, urine, and sweat. Studies looking for VOCs in urine for the diagnosis of urological cancers have mostly focused on bladder and prostate cancers. However, the number of patients included in the studies was small. The electronic nose was the most widely used means of detecting VOCs in urine for the detection of urological cancers. MOS sensors and pattern recognition machine learning were more used for the composition of electronic noses. Early detection of urological cancers by detection of VOCs in urine is a method with encouraging results with sensitivities ranging from 27 to 100% and specificities ranging from 72 to 94%. The olfactory signature of urine from patients with urological cancers is a promising biomarker for the early diagnosis of urological cancers. The electronic nose with its ability to recognize complex odors is an excellent alterative to canine diagnosis and analytical techniques. Nevertheless, additional research improving the technology of Enoses and the methodology of the studies is necessary for its implementation in daily clinical practice.

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Use of genomic markers to improve epidemiologic and clinical research in urology.

Urologic cancers result from the appearance of genomic alterations in the target organ due to the combination of genetic and environmental factors. Knowledge of the genomic markers involved in their etiology and mechanisms for their development continue to progress. This reviewed provides an update on recent genomic studies that have informed epidemiologic and clinical research in urology. Inherited variations are an established risk factor for urologic cancers with significant estimates of heritability for prostate, kidney, and bladder cancer. The roles of both rare germline variants, identified from family-based studies, and common variants, identified from genome-wide association studies, have provided important information about the genetic architecture for urologic cancers. Large-scale analyses of tumors have generated genomic, epigenomic, transcriptomic, and proteomic data that have also provided novel insights into etiology and mechanisms. These tumors characteristics, along with the associated tumor microenvironment, have attempted to provide more accurate risk stratification, prognosis of disease and therapeutic management. Genomic studies of inherited and acquired variation are changing the landscape of our understanding of the causes of urologic cancers and providing important translational insights for their management. Their use in epidemiologic and clinical studies is thus essential.

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