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Clinical effects of major aortopulmonary collateral arteries in term neonates diagnosed with transposition of the great arteries.

Transposition of the great arteries is a severe CHD that affects term neonates. The presence of major aortopulmonary collateral arteries in neonatal transposition of the great arteries patients is rare. This study investigated the clinical and haemodynamic implications of the presence of major aortopulmonary collateral arteries in neonatal transposition of the great arteries patients who underwent an arterial switch operation. The study was a retrospective analysis conducted on neonates diagnosed with transposition of the great arteries who underwent arterial switch operation within the period from 1 May 2020 to 1 January 2023 at two high-patient-volume paediatric cardiac surgery centres in Turkey. The patients' demographic characteristics, echocardiographic features, and clinical data were analysed. Additionally, the possible clinical effects of the presence of major aortopulmonary collateral arteries were statistically evaluated. Two hundred cases of neonatal transposition of the great arteries were included in this study, with 55% of the cases male. All the patients underwent arterial switch operation. The median age at the time of arterial switch operation was 5 days (interquartile range 3-7), with a median weight of 3,100 g (interquartile range 2,900-3,400). The median pre-operative saturation level was 76% (interquartile range 70-82%). Prior to arterial switch operation, 32 patients underwent balloon atrial septostomy.In all the patients, the interatrial septum was checked to determine if the atrial septum was intact. A patent foramen ovale (≤ 3 mm) was found in 112 patients, and a non-restrictive atrial septal defect (> 3 mm) was found in 88. Forty-eight patients had ventricular septal defects, and 72 had coronary anomalies. Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries were found in 4 patients pre-operatively and in 12 patients after arterial switch operation (echocardiography, n = 8; angiography, n = 4). Of the patients with post-operative detection of cumulative number of major aortopulmonary collateral arteries were on post-operative day 1 in 2 patients, on post-operative day 3 in 5 patients, on post-operative day 7 in 6 patients, and on post-operative day 14 in 11 patients.Transcatheter closure was performed in 3 cases due to recurrent extubation failure. Major aortopulmonary collateral artery shrinkage was observed in one case under medical treatment. The length of paediatric cardiac intensive care unit stay (10 days versus 8 days; p < 0.005), mechanical ventilator time (4 days versus 2 days; p = 0.02), and inotrope use time (5 days versus 3 days; p = 0.04) were higher in the major aortopulmonary collateral artery cases than patients without major aortopulmonary collateral artery. Major aortopulmonary collateral arteries are frequent in transposition of the great arteries patients and may have clinical effects. The presence of major aortopulmonary collateral arteries should be investigated in patients who do not have a favourable post-operative course after arterial switch operation.

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Correlation of n-terminal pro-brain-type natriuretic peptide levels with the severity of single mitral regurgitation or accompanied by mild aorta valve dysfunction in patients with rheumatic heart disease in Sanglah general hospital.

The most frequent abnormality of the valves involved in rheumatic heart disease is mitral regurgitation. A promising supportive diagnostic tool for rheumatic heart disease is the N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, which can identify mitral valve damage. To prove a positive correlation between N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels and the severity of mitral regurgitation or accompanied by mild aortic valve dysfunction in children with rheumatic heart disease. Children aged 1-18 years who had been identified as having rheumatic heart disease with a single mitral regurgitation or accompanied by mild aortic issues at Sanglah General Hospital, Denpasar, met the inclusion criteria for this cross-sectional study. Mitral regurgitation severity was determined using the parameters of vena contracta width, effective regurgitation orifice area, regurgitant jet area, and regurgitation volume. Bivariate analysis using the Spearman correlation test. From 36 research subjects, the mean age was 11.32 years. In this study, there was a moderate positive correlation between the levels of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and the regurgitation jet area. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels also had a moderately positive correlation with the vena contracta width and a weakly positive correlation with the regurgitation volume. Effective regurgitation orifice area and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels did not significantly correlate. There was a moderately positive correlation between N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels and the severity of mitral regurgitation on regurgitation jet area, a moderately positive correlation with the vena contracta width, and a weakly positive correlation with regurgitation volume in rheumatic heart disease patients.

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Posterior pericardial window: a simple and reproducible technique in order to prevent pericardial tamponade in paediatric cardiac surgery.

Pericardial tamponade, which increases postoperative mortality and morbidity, is still not uncommon after paediatric cardiac surgery. We considered that posterior pericardiotomy may be a useful and safe technique in order to reduce the incidence of early and late pericardial tamponade. Herein, we present our experience with creation of posterior pericardial window following congenital cardiac surgical procedures. This retrospective study evaluated 229 patients who underwent paediatric cardiac surgical procedures between June 2021 and January 2023. A posterior pericardial window was created in all of the patients. In neonates and infants, pericardial window was performed at a size of 2x2 cm, whereas a 3x3 cm connection was established in elder children and young adults. A curved chest tube was placed and positioned at the posterolateral pericardiophrenic sinus. An additional straight anterior mediastinal chest tube was also inserted in every patient. Transthoracic echocardiographic evaluations were performed daily to assess postoperative pericardial effusion. A total of 229 (135 male, 94 female) patients were operated. Mean age and body weight were 24.2 ± 26.7 months and 10.2 ± 6.7 kg, respectively. Eight (3.5%) of the patients were neonates where 109 (47.6%) were infants and 112 (48.9%) were in childhood. Fifty-two (22.7%) re-do operations were performed. Six (2.6%) patients underwent postoperative surgical re-exploration due to surgical site bleeding. Any early or late pericardial tamponade was not encountered in the study group. Posterior pericardial window is an effective and safe technique in order to prevent both the early and late pericardial tamponade after congenital cardiac surgery.

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Echocardiography evaluation of neonatal vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation.

In neonatal vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation, vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation echocardiography remains the mainstay for early detection and explains various haemodynamic changes occurring due to a large systemic arterio-venous shunt. However, there is limited evidence of echocardiography in risk stratifying neonatal vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation. The objective of this study was to identify echocardiographic parameters that could be associated with major outcomes and guide timing of neuro-intervention. In this retrospective chart review, infants < 28 days of age with the diagnosis of vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation were included. Demographic, clinical, and echocardiographic parameters were compared in neonates who survived or died with neonatal presentation. A risk algorithm model based on key echocardiographic parameters was developed to determine those who are at risk of early death. Of the 19 neonates included, with median birth weight 3.1 kg (IQR 2.58-3.36), nine (47%) neonates died at median age of 5 days (IQR 4-17). All neonates showed retrograde diastolic flow at the level of descending aorta by colour Doppler on the first post-natal echocardiogram at median age of 2 days (IQR 1-5.5). An aortic antegrade-to-retrograde velocity time integral ratio of < 1.5 and supra-systemic pulmonary artery pressure had 100% positive predictive value of death (p = 0.029), whereas aortic antegrade-to-retrograde velocity time integral ratio of > 1.5 and sub-systemic pulmonary artery pressure had 100% positive predictive value of survival (p = 0.029). Combination of aorta antegrade-to-retrograde velocity time integral ratio and degree of pulmonary hypertension on the first post-natal echocardiogram may help stratify the severity of disease and guide optimal timing for neuro-intervention for neonatal vein of Galen aneurysmal malformation.

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Use of the advisor™ HD Grid mapping catheter in transcatheter ablation of atrial arrhythmias in palliated CHD and children without CHD.

In this study, we describe our experience utilising Advisor™ High Density (HD) Grid mapping catheter in transcatheter ablation of intraatrial re-entrant and focal atrial tachycardias with or without CHD. Forty-five consecutive patients with intraatrial re-entrant and focal atrial tachycardia who underwent a transcatheter ablation procedure by using Advisor™ HD Grid mapping catheter and high-density mapping system in our hospital from January 2017 to January 2023 were included into the study. The mean age of the patients was 14.2 ± 7.3 years (6-32 years), and the mean weight was 48.3 ± 16.2 kg (22-83 kg). Of the total 45 patients, 21 were intraatrial re-entrant tachycardia and 25 were focal atrial tachycardia. Of the 21 re-entrant circuits, 15 were classified as cavotricuspid isthmus-dependent and 5 were non-cavotricuspid isthmus-dependent. In one patient, two re-entrant circuits were identified. A transbaffle ablation was successfully performed from the left atrium in one patient. Of the 25 focal atrial tachycardia, 19 were from right atrium and 6 were from left atrium. A cryoablation was performed in only one patient and radiofrequency ablation in others. The mean procedure time was 180 ± 64 minutes. The mean follow-up period was 69.3 ± 35.3 months. Acute success was 95.5%. Recurrence was noted in two patients (4.4%). Advisor™ HD Grid mapping catheter was found to be safe and achieved an acceptable success in transcatheter ablation of patients with intraatrial re-entrant tachycardia and focal atrial tachycardias.

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Do sports protect us from COVID-19? An evaluation of COVID-19 infection, vaccination status, and cardiac examination findings in children who exercise.

The COVID-19 pandemic which has devastated the whole world for the past 3 years affects different patient groups differently. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence, symptoms, and severity of COVID-19 infection, vaccination status, and cardiac pathologies of children who exercise. The records of the children and adolescents who applied to our paediatric cardiology outpatient clinic for preparticipation examinations between 01.01.22 and 31.12.2022 were scanned retrospectively, and information about their COVID-19 history, the severity of infection, symptoms during the infection, at the time of the examination, and vaccination status was obtained. The results were analysed using MS Excel 2016 software. The study consisted of 240 children [82 (34.17%) girls and 158 (65.83%) boys] whose mean age was 12.64 ± 2.64 years, mean weight was 50.03 ± 15.53 kg, mean height was 157 ± 15.09 cm, and mean body mass index was 19.65 ± 3.59. 129 cases had a COVID-19 history, 74 cases had no COVID-19 history, and 37 only had contact but no polymerase chain reaction positivity. 84 cases were mild, 19 were moderate, and 12 were asymptomatic. The most common symptoms were fatigue, malaise, headache, sore throat, and fever. 51 cases (35.15%) were vaccinated against COVID-19. No significant cardiac pathologies were detected in electrocardiography or echocardiography. This study shows that COVID-19 infections in children who exercise are generally mild and self-limiting. Our findings suggest that exercise may have positive effects on immunity.

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