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Characterization and efficiency of Ganoderma lucidum biomass as an antimicrobial and anticancer agent

The microconstituents of Ganoderma lucidum biomass (GLB) were evaluated, along with its antimicrobial and anticancer activities. Using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, 12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)- and n-hexadecanoic acid with area% values of 21.0% and 11.0% were recognized in GLB. Uncooked biomass (UCB) and microwave-cooked (CE) biomass of G. lucidum caused a significant inhibition of human breast cancer (MCF-7) cell line proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibition of MCF-7 cell proliferation was 27.22 ± 1.64% using 16 µg/mL of CB while it was 52.29 ± 1.09% using 16 µg/mL of UCB. The cytotoxicity test recorded low IC50 (25.63 ± 0.52 µg/mL) of UCE compared to the IC50 value (49.99 ± 0.94 µg/mL) of CB. Highest antimicrobial activities were recorded via using UCE, compared to CE against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Candida albicans, and Aspergillus niger. The 9,12-octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)- and n-hexadecanoic acid were able to induce both anticancer and antibiotic-resistant properties. A key therapeutic target enzyme for evolving this resistant pathogenic activity on MCF-7 and K. pneumonia, was accessed thoroughly in silico study. The compounds described, therefore, might provide a great potential for the development of new therapeutics such as anticancer and antimicrobial agents.