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Predictive biomarkers for colorectal cancer: a state-of-the-art systematic review

Introduction Colorectal cancer (CRC) poses a substantial health burden, with early detection paramount for improved prognosis. This study aims to evaluate potential CRC biomarkers and detection techniques. Materials and Methods This systematic review, reported in adherence to PRISMA Statement 2020 guidelines, collates the latest research on potential biomarkers and detection/prognosis methods for CRC, spanning the last decade. Results Out of the 38 included studies, diverse biomarkers and detection methods emerged, with DNA methylation markers like SFRP2 and SDC2, microRNAs including miR-1290, miR-506, and miR-4316, and serum and plasma markers such as NTS levels and U2 snRNA fragments standing out. Methylated cfDNA and m5C methylation alteration in immune cells of the blood, along with circular RNA, showed promise as diagnostic markers. Meanwhile, techniques involving extracellular vesicles and lateral flow immunoassays exhibited potential for swift and effective CRC screening. Discussion Our state-of-the-art review identifies potential biomarkers, including SFRP2, SDC2, miR-1290, miR-506, miR-4316, and U2 snRNA fragments, with significant potential in enhancing CRC detection. However, comprehensive validation studies and a rigorous evaluation of clinical utility and cost-effectiveness remain necessary before integration into routine clinical practice. Conclusion The findings emphasize the need for continued research into biomarkers and detection methods to improve patient outcomes.

Protective effect of grape seed extract and exercise training on tissues toxicities in doxorubicin-treated healthy rat

Objective The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of Grape seed extract (GSE) and exercise training on Doxorubicin (Doxo)-induced cardio, hepato and myo toxicities in healthy rats. Methods Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups and daily treated by intraperitoneal route during two months either with ethanol 10% (Control); Doxo (1.5 mg/kg); Doxo + exercise (1.5 mg/kg + swimming exercise for 30 min twice a week); Doxo + GSE (1.5 mg/kg + GSE 2.5 g/kg); Doxo + GSE + exercise (1.5 mg/kg + GSE 2.5 g/kg + swimming exercise for 30 min twice a week). At the end of the treatment, tissues were collected and processed for the determination of oxidative stress (OS), intracellular mediators, energy fuelling biomarkers, carbohydrate metabolism parameters and muscle histopathology. Results Doxo provoked OS characterised by an increased lipoperoxidation (LPO) and protein carbonylation and decreased antioxidant enzyme activities. Doxo also affected intracellular mediators, disturbed carbohydrate metabolism and energy fuelling in skeletal muscle as assessed by down-regulated Electron Transport Chain (ETC) complex activities leading in fine to altered skeletal muscle structure and function. Conclusion Almost all Doxo-induced disturbances were partially corrected with GSE and exercise on their own and more efficiently with the combined treatment (GSE + exercise).

Exploring the potential of humanin as a biomarker for early breast cancer detection: a study of serum levels and diagnostic performance

Introduction Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer death in women worldwide, and early detection is crucial for effective treatment. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to cancer development and progression. Humanin, a mitochondrial-derived peptide, has been shown to have cytoprotective effects and may be involved in breast cancer development. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential of humanin as a biomarker for breast cancer. Methods We recruited 45 female patients diagnosed with primary invasive ductal breast cancer and 45 healthy volunteers. Serum humanin levels were measured using ELISA, and other cancer markers were measured using an Advia Centaur Immunology Analyser. Results Our results showed that serum humanin levels were significantly higher in breast cancer patients than in healthy controls (p = 0.008). ROC curve analysis indicated that humanin could effectively discriminate between patients and healthy individuals, with a sensitivity of 62.5% and a specificity of 77.5%. Conclusion This suggests that humanin may be a potential new biomarker for breast cancer screening and early detection. Further research is needed to fully understand the relationship between humanin and breast cancer and to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

Association between polymorphisms in connexin 40 gene (Cx40) and risk of atrial fibrillation: a meta-analysis based on 3,452 subjects

Introduction Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common cardiac arrhythmia that is associated with heart failure and stroke, leading sometimes to death. But the pathogenesis of AF remains unclear. Numerous studies have investigated whether the connexin 40 (Cx40) polymorphisms influences the risk of AF, but the results are controversial. Methods We searched English and Chinese databases and calculated the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) to examine the existence of genetic associations between the Cx40 polymorphisms and the risk of AF. All relevant studies were screened and meta-analyzed using Review Manager 5.0. Results A total of 12 studies, including 10 studies for –44 polymorphism (rs35594137) and 4 studies for –26 polymorphism (rs10465885), were identified for the meta-analysis. For –44 polymorphism, the results showed a significantly increased risk of AF in the five genetic models in the overall analysis. Furthermore, in subgroup analysis, increased AF risks were also observed in Asian and non-Asian populations. For –26 polymorphism, the overall OR revealed an increased risk of AF in dominant model. In subgroup analysis, increased AF risk was only found in recessive genetic model of the Asian population. Conclusions The Cx40 polymorphisms were positively associated with AF in both populations, especially on –44 polymorphism.

Anti-Mullerian hormone and cardiometabolic status: a systematic review

Background To summarise the relationship between Anti-mullerian hormone (AMH) levels and cardiometabolic status in different populations. Methods PubMed, Scopus, and Embase were searched for retrieving observational studies published up to February 2022 investigating the relationship between AMH level and cardiometabolic status. Results Of 3,643 studies retrieved from databases, a total of 37 observational studies were included in this review. The majority of the included studies revealed an inverse association between AMH and lipid profiles, including triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and a positive correlation with high-density lipoprotein (HDL). While some studies have revealed a significant inverse association between AMH and glycemic parameters, including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR, others found no such relationships. There is also an inconsistency among studies regarding the association of AMH with adiposity indices and blood pressure. Evidence indicates a significant association between AMH and some vascular markers, such as intima-media thickness and coronary artery calcification. Of 3 studies evaluating the relationship between AMH and cardiovascular events, two studies showed an inverse relationship between AMH levels and cardiovascular (CVD), whereas another study showed no significant association. Conclusions The results of this systematic review suggest that serum AMH levels can be associated with CVD risk. This may provide new insight into the use of AMH concentrations as a predictive marker for assessing the risk of cardiovascular disease, although more well-design longitudinal studies are still necessary for this area. Future studies on this topic will hopefully provide an opportunity to run a meta-analysis; it will increase the persuasiveness of this interpretation.