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Influence of Select Dietary Trace Minerals and their Levels on Growth Performance, Nutrient Utilization and Minerals Balance in Male Goats.

A study was conducted on eighteen male goats to evaluate the effect of incremental levels of select dietary trace minerals on growth performance, nutrient utilization and minerals balance. Animals (16.65 ± 0.53kg average BW) were randomly divided into three groups and fed a basal diet to meet the requirement of all the nutrients except select trace minerals for 60 days. Groups were T1 (0.204 ppm Se, 35.29 ppm Zn, 7.37 ppm Cu, 39.79 ppm Mn), T2 (0.504 ppm Se, 55.29 ppm Zn, 17.37 ppm Cu, 59.79 ppm Mn), and T3 (0.804 ppm Se, 75.29 ppm Zn, 27.37 ppm Cu, 79.79 ppm Mn). Daily dry matter intake (DMI) (% BW) was lower (P < 0.05) in T3 as compared to other groups however, average daily gain (ADG) in body weight (P = 0.113) and feed: gain ratio (P = 0.102) showed subtle improvement in T2 and T3 groups. Feeding of higher levels of select trace minerals did not affect the intake and digestibility of nutrients, or plane of nutrition, however, the digestibility of non-fiber carbohydrates (NFC) increased (P = 0.004) in T2 and T3 groups than T1. The balance of N, Ca, P and Cu did not differ among the groups but balance of Zn, Mn and Se increased in T2 and T3 groups than T1 group. It is concluded that feeding higher levels of Zn (75.29 ppm), Cu (27.37 ppm), Mn (79.79 ppm) and Se (0.804 ppm) in combination, improved NFC digestibility, retention of Zn, Mn and Se and had subtle beneficial effects on the growth performance of male goats.

Chronic Fluoride Exposure Induces Ovarian Dysfunction and Potential Association with Premature Ovarian Failure in Female Rats.

Chronic fluorosis has been widely investigated for its adverse effects on skeletal and neurological health; however, its impact on reproductive health, especially in females, remains underexplored. In this study, female Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to different fluoride concentrations (0.75, 50, and 100mg/L) in their drinking water for six months. Dental fluorosis and increased urinary fluoride content were observed in fluoride-exposed rats, reflecting fluoride accumulation and exposure levels. Chronic fluorosis resulted in reduced ovary organ coefficient, indicating harmful effects on ovarian tissue. Additionally, the number of ovarian primordial and primary/secondary follicles decreased, while the number of atresia follicles increased. Furthermore, chronic fluorosis led to disrupted estrous cycles. Hormonal analysis revealed altered secretion of estrogen, progesterone, anti-Müllerian hormone, luteinizing hormone, follicular stimulating hormone, and inhibin B in response to fluoride exposure. Ultrastructural observation of ovarian granulosa cells showed evidence of apoptosis, which was further confirmed by flow cytometry. Caspase-3 activity was increased, and ATP levels were decreased, suggesting mitochondrial impairment and apoptosis induction. The mRNA and protein expression of BMP15 and GDF9, essential regulators of ovarian function, significantly decreased with increasing fluoride concentration. Furthermore, gene expression analysis identified a panel of premature ovarian failure-related genes that were downregulated in fluoride-exposed rat ovaries. These findings suggest that chronic fluoride exposure may contribute to ovarian dysfunction and possibly the pathogenesis of premature ovarian failure. Understanding the toxicological effects of chronic fluoride exposure on ovarian function is essential for identifying potential environmental risk factors affecting female reproductive health.

Selenium Injection in Dam Rabbits During Gestation Has Important Effects on Progeny Productive Performance.

Micromineral elements have a fundamental participation in the processes of organogenesis and fetal development. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of selenium (Se) injection in pregnant female rabbits, during organogenesis or rapid fetal growth, on the productive performance of their progeny. An experiment was carried out with 30 New Zealand female rabbits, with an average age of 6 months. At the end of mating (day 0), using a randomized complete design, the female rabbits were distributed into three experimental groups, which were assigned to the following treatments: Control, female rabbits were injected intramuscularly (IM) with 0.5 ml of saline on days 13 and 23 of gestation; Early administration, female rabbits that were injected IM with Se (0.10 mg/kg BW) on day 13 of gestation (organogenesis) and 0.5 ml of saline on day 23 of gestation; and Late administration, female rabbits that were injected IM with 0.5 ml of saline on day 13 of gestation and Se (0.10 mg/kg BW) on day 23 of gestation (rapid fetal growth). No differences were found on kindling performance of dams and pre-weaning growth of rabbit offspring. However, an injection of Se to pregnant rabbits affected the growth and development of their progeny, with the treatment leading to changes in the yield of some carcass traits (forelimb weight and forelimb muscle weight) and weights of some organs (liver, lungs, and spleen). The Se treatment (both early and late) also resulted in lower concentrations of glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol when compared to the control group. These effects were different when Se injection was performed during organogenesis or rapid fetal development. The results from this study suggest that there are beneficial effects of gestational Se injection of rabbit dams on important productive traits of their progeny.

The Effectiveness of Time in Treatment with Vitamin C and Broccoli Extract on Cadmium Poisoning in Mice: Histological Changes of Testicular Tissue and Cell Apoptotic Index.

The growth rate of reproductive system disorders caused by heavy metals is undeniable. The effect of time and interfering compounds are also of paramount importance. The main objective of this study was to compare the effects of broccoli extract and vitamin C in the context of cadmium poisoning on various reproductive parameters in mice, with a specific focus on the influence of time. A total of one hundred and forty-four male mice were randomly assigned to six groups. The control (C) group received only water and a standard diet without any interventions. The Cd group received a single intraperitoneal dose of cadmium chloride at 1.5 mg/kg. The cadmium intervention groups were administered broccoli extract at dosages of 100 mg/kg (Cd + B100), 200 mg/kg (Cd + B200), and 300 mg/kg (Cd + B300), respectively. Additionally, the Cd + VC group was treated with cadmium and vitamin C at 200 mg/kg intraperitoneally for a duration of 28 days. At the end of each week (four stages), five animals were randomly chosen from each group. Epididymal sperm were subjected to analysis for sperm parameters, while testicular tissue sections were examined for histological studies, apoptosis index, and markers of oxidative stress. The influence of time on body and testis weight gain was notably significant in the Cd + B300 and Cd + VC groups (p = 0.001). In all groups, except for Cd + B100, there were marked increases in spermatogenic cell lines and the Johnson coefficient compared to the Cd group (p = 0.001). These changes were particularly pronounced in the Cd + VC and Cd + B300 groups with respect to time (p < 0.001). Furthermore, there was a discernible positive impact of time on sperm count in the high-dose broccoli and vitamin C groups, although this effect did not reach significance in terms of sperm motility and vitality. Over time, the levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) enzymes increased, while malondialdehyde (MDA) levels decreased in the Cd + VC, Cd + B200, and Cd + B300 groups (p = 0.001). The apoptosis index in testicular tissue reached its highest level in the Cd group and its lowest level in the Cd + B300 and Cd + VC groups during the fourth week (p < 0.05). Linolenic acid, indole, and sulforaphane were identified as the most potent compounds in broccoli during this intervention. Consequently, vitamin C and broccoli extract at a dosage of 300 mg/kg demonstrated significant enhancements in reproductive performance in cases of cadmium poisoning. Overall, the influence of time significantly amplified the process of spermatogenesis and sperm production, with no observable changes in sperm viability and motility.

Determination of Serum Zinc and Phosphorus Levels in Patients with Hypothyroidism.

Various studies reported that serum zinc (Zn) and phosphorus (P) levels altered in patients with hypothyroidism and vice versa, but results were found inconsistent. It was aimed to find the association between serum Zn and P in patients with hypothyroidism. In this case-control study, a total of 100 subjects (50 newly diagnosed patients of hypothyroidism and 50 controls) were enrolled aged between 25 and 60years. Biochemical parameters such as thyroid profile, serum Zn, and P were estimated in each subject. A p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The mean level of body mass index (BMI), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and serum P was found significantly elevated in cases compared to controls (p < 0.001). However, the mean level of total triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxine (T4), and serum Zn was found significantly reduced in cases compared to controls (p < 0.001). The serum Zn has shown a significant negative correlation with T3 and BMI among cases (r =  - 0.313 p < 0.05, r =  - 0.338 p < 0.05, respectively). However, serum P has shown a significant positive correlation with TSH and BMI among cases (r = 0.310 p < 0.05, r = 0.449 p < 0.01, respectively). Regression analysis indicated that serum Zn significantly predicted hypothyroidism (p < 0.00). Similarly, serum P significantly predicted hypothyroidism (p < 0.007). Results showed that serum Zn levels were significantly reduced and serum P levels were significantly elevated in cases compared to controls. The serum Zn and serum P both significantly associated with hypothyroidism.

Open Access
Cross-Talk Between Selenium Nanoparticles and Cancer Treatment Through Autophagy.

Autophagy is commonly referred as self-eating and a complex cellular process that is involved in the digestion of protein and damaged organelles through a lysosome-dependent mechanism, and this mechanism is essential for maintaining proper cellular homeostasis. Selenium is a vital trace element that plays essential functions in antioxidant defense, redox state control, and range of particular metabolic processes. Selenium nanoparticles have become known as a promising agent for biomedical use, because of their high bioavailability, low toxicity, and degradability. However, and in recent years, they have attracted the interest of researchers in developing anticancer nano-drugs. Selenium nanoparticles can be used as a potential therapeutic agent or in combination with other agents to act as carriers for the development of new treatments. More intriguingly, selenium nanoparticles have been extensively shown to impact autophagy signaling, allowing selenium nanoparticles to be used as possible cancer treatment agents. This review explored the connections between selenium and autophagy, followed by developments and current advances of selenium nanoparticles for autophagy control in various clinical circumstances. Furthermore, this study examined the functions and possible processes of selenium nanoparticles in autophagy regulation, which may help us understand how selenium nanoparticles regulate autophagy for the potential cancer treatment.

Association of Exposure to Heavy Metal Mixtures with Systemic Immune-Inflammation Index Among US Adults in NHANES 2011-2016.

In reality, people are often co-exposed to multiple heavy metals; however, current research has focused on the association between individual heavy metals and inflammation. Therefore, it is more relevant to explore the combined effects of multiple heavy metal exposure on inflammation. The study included data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2011-2016. The systemic immune-inflammation index (SII) was used to reflect systemic immune-inflammation status. In this study, single variable models were used to assess the linear and non-linear relationships between single heavy metal exposures and SII. To analyze the combined effect of mixed heavy metals exposure on SII, we constructed three statistical models, including weighted quantile sum (WQS) regression, quantile-based g computation (qgcomp), and Bayesian kernel machine regression (BKMR). The single-exposure analysis found positive associations between multiple heavy metals and SII, while mercury in blood was negatively associated with SII, and U-shaped correlations were observed between blood lead, urine barium and strontium, and SII. In the WQS model, SII increased significantly with increasing concentrations of mixed heavy metals, while consistent results in the qgcomp model, but not statistically significant. In the BKMR model, exposure to heavy metal mixtures was positively associated with SII, with mercury, cadmium, and cobalt in urine contributing the most to the mixed exposure. In addition, synergistic and antagonistic effects between heavy metals on increasing SII were found in our study. In summary, our results reveal that combined exposure to multiple heavy metals is positively associated with SII in the US adults.

Application and Comparison of Different Regression Models in Iodine Balance Experiment on Women of Childbearing Age and Pregnant Women.

The iodine balance experiment is a traditional approach to evaluate the physiological requirement for iodine, while the simple linear regression model (SLM) and the mixed effects model (MEM) are two primary methods used to analyze iodine balance experiments. In the present study, we aimed to compare the effects of these two regression models on the evaluation of iodine balance experiments to investigate appropriate valuation methods. By constructing SLM and MEM, zero iodine balance values (IBV) were determined, and the evaluation effects were compared. No changes were made to the experimental data for women of childbearing age, and cutoff values of 600µg/day and 1000µg/day, respectively, were chosen for further processing of the experimental data for pregnant women. Equation combinations 1-3 (EC1-3) were obtained by fitting SLM, and zero IBV were calculated as 110.26µg/day, 333.06µg/day, and 434.84µg/day, respectively. EC4-6 were obtained by fitting MEM, and zero IBV were calculated as 110.44µg/day, 335.79µg/day, and 418.06µg/day, respectively. The inclusion of inter-measurement variation as a random factor in the MEM yielded EC7-8, which reduced the test power of the iodine balance experiment on women of childbearing age. Our study suggested that when experimental conditions were tightly controlled, with fewer uncertainties or significant influences, computationally straightforward and well-understood SLM was preferred. If some uncertain factors might cause large changes in the experimental results, it was advised to use a more "conservative" MEM to calculate the zero IBV. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: Registered at Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT03279315 (17th September 2017, retrospectively registered), NCT03710148 (18th October 2018, retrospectively registered).