155 publications found
Sort by
Infrastructure of animal farms: key constructional elements in terms of biosecurity based on experience from Germany

The infrastructural design of an animal farm can significantly motivate or discourage adopting biosecurity measures in the daily routines. Proper planning and collaboration between architects, farmers and veterinarians is critical in the prevention of serious biosecurity issues, possible financial and animal losses. The consistent use of a uniform nomenclature that encompasses both, construction-functional and veterinary-epidemiological terms is therefore essential. We developed a conceptual framework for key constructional elements in terms of biosecurity and characterize key concepts from both disciplines, architecture and veterinary epidemiology. From an epidemiological point of view, we focus on pathogens and vectors, and from a constructional perspective on biosecurity areas, barriers and locks. The central aspect of the framework is the capability of barriers and locks to prevent (uncontrolled) movement of vectors between different biosecurity areas, thus interrupting pathways of pathogen transmission. Concepts are abstracted and aggregated in such a way that they can be applied to any animal husbandry system, regardless of species or size, and independently of a particular disease. The aim is providing a common basis of terminology that facilitates cross-sectoral cooperation.

Haemorrhagic septicaemia (septicaemic pasteurellosis) in cattle in Baden-Wuerttemberg (Germany)

Haemorrhagic septicaemia (septicaemic pasteurellosis) caused by Pasteurella (P.) multocida capsular type B has been diagnosed in cattle in the federal state of Baden-Wuerttemberg (Germany) for the first time in June 2019 since its last official report in Germany in 1986 and its reoccurrence in 2010. A total of 13 cattle succumbed to sudden death on four farms located in the northern part of the Black Forest between June and November 2019. Post-mortem examinations were carried out on seven of these animals and all displayed marked hyperaemia, haemorrhages and oedema in the subcutis and in several inner organs. The pathological-anatomical findings were confirmed by histopathological analyses. Cultivation of P. multocida was successful in five of seven cattle with high bacterial loads in internal organs, and poor growth in two animals. All isolates were clearly identified as P. multocida by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry and were compared with isolates originating from an HS outbreak in eastern Germany in summer 2010 using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Molecular capsular and LPS genotyping assigned six of the isolates to the genotypes B:L2 and one to B:L6, respectively. All isolates belonged to the RIRDC MLST genotype ST122. Antimicrobial testing of P. multocida isolates originating from each farm based on the determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) revealed susceptibility to ampicillin, ceftiofur, enrofloxacin, florfenicol, penicillin G, tetracycline, and tulathromycin. Resistance was determined for spectinomycin.

A self-assessment tool to improve poultry farm biosecurity regarding avian influenza

Highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) poses an important threat to poultry farming and the whole value chain. Since biosecurity is a major strategy to reduce the risk of HPAI virus introduction into farms and poultry flocks, a self-assessment tool for farmers concerning their farm-specific biosecurity management was developed. It is based on a questionnaire referring to risk factors retrieved from the literature or elaborated by experts, respectively. The risk factors are related to farm-, biosecurity- and animal health-management. Their epidemiological relevance is expressed through weights that were determined by an expert panel in a two-stage Delphi approach. The overall risk of a farm is estimated as the complementary to the percentage compliance with the measures assuring a maximum biosecurity as represented by the compiled questions and their respective weights. The tool is offered as a free of charge, open-access web - based tool, the so-called AI-Risikoampel (AI-Risk Traffic Light), an online anonymous risk-check, which does not only allow to elicit farm-specific optimization potentials concerning biosecurity, but also generates a farm-specific to-do list with tasks ranked according to relevance. Biosecurity gaps may thus be closed by the farmer, possibly also in cooperation with a veterinarian or consultant. The to-date experience concerning the acceptance of the tool and the user statistics are presented.

Authorization of animal research proposals – a comparison of harm concepts in different European regulations

Meeting the professional responsibilities of veterinarians in animal research has been described by the German Federal Chamber of Veterinary Surgeons (Bundestierarztekammer, BTK) as a “special ethical challenge”. Veterinarians are involved in animal research, not only as researcher and animal welfare officers, but also as members of ethical review committees and as such require a unique set of skills to provide a wide range of services and practices. Animal research in Europe is strictly regulated. The harm-benefit analysis (HBA) is one of the legal corner stones in project authorization and as such has to be carried out within a specific legal framework. Hence, veterinarians (and other members of ethical review committees) require an understanding of the normative foundation of animal research legislation in order to fulfill their role and responsibilities. Against this background, it is the goal of this article (1) to introduce the rationale and role of the harm concept and the HBA in project evaluation of animal research. (2) We then outline the different harm concepts which the European and the Swiss legislation are based on and (3) elaborate on the moral significance that is given to different forms of harm within the HBA in these legal frameworks. (4) Last, we demonstrate potential practical implications of these conceptually different normative frameworks for project evaluation in animal research with the practical example of genetically disenhancing the ability of rodents to feel pain and to suffer.