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Injectable calcium phosphate and styrene–butadiene polymer-based root canal filling material

Abstract Background Three-dimensional obturation of the root canal system is mandatory for a successful root canal treatment. Using a filling material with optimal properties may enable the root canal to be sealed well and therefore obtain the desired obturation. Objective To develop a new injectable paste endodontic filling material using calcium phosphate powder and a styrene–butadiene emulsion polymer. Methods The powder phase comprised an equivalent molar ratio of tetracalcium phosphate, anhydrous dicalcium phosphate, bismuth oxide, and calcium chloride. The liquid phase comprised a styrene–butadiene rubber emulsion in distilled water. The powder and the liquid were mixed to achieve a paste consistency. The paste was subjected to various tests including flow, setting time, dimensional change, solubility, and radiopacity to indicate its suitability as a root canal filling material. All these tests were conducted according to the American National Standards Institute–American Dental Association for endodontic sealing materials. After passing these tests, the paste was submitted to an injectability test. Results The material showed acceptable flowability with 19.1 ± 1.3 min setting time and 0.61 ± 0.16% shrinkage after 30 days of storage. We found the highest solubility at 24 h (6.62 ± 0.58%), then the solubility decreased to 1.09 ± 0.08% within 3 days. The material was more radiopaque than a 3 mm step on an aluminum wedge. Furthermore, the material showed good injectability of 93.67 ± 1.80%. Conclusions The calcium phosphate powder in styrene–butadiene emulsion met basic requirements for a root canal filling material with promising properties.

Open Access
A meta-analysis of tumor necrosis factor-α-308 G>A polymorphism in gastric cancer

Abstract Background Gastric cancer (GC) is the common cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide and inflammation represents the early phases in the GC. Objective To review the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-308 G>A (GG, GA, and AA) in GC by meta-analysis studies for any differences in TNF-α-308 G>A gene polymorphisms. Methods Case–control studies published from 2003 to 2017 were identified by searching PubMed, EMASE, and the Internet with the English language. The analysis published on TNF-α-308 G>A polymorphism was analyzed and a limited number of articles were included in the present study. TNF-α-308 G>A from 4,157 patients and 5,185 healthy controls was evaluated. Studies were evaluated using Cochrane Q-test and publication bias was evaluated by constructing funnel plots. Results Overall, TNF-α-308 GA genotype showed significant association [P < 0.0001, odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.82 (0.74–0.91)]. However, meta-analysis of TNF-α-308 genotypes (GG, GA, AA, and GA + AA) between GC patients and controls showed nonsignificant association with GC [P > 0.05, recessive model: OR = 1.38, 95% CI: 1.15–1.66; dominant model: OR = 1.23, 95% CI: 1.09–1.39; (G/A) vs. (G/G): OR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.02–1.28; (A/A) vs. (G/G): OR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.19–1.73]. Analysis stratified by ethnicity showed same results in Asian and Caucasian populations. Conclusions Results revealed nonsignificant association of TNF-α-308 genotypes (GG, GA, AA, and GA + AA) and GC. TNF-α-308GA genotype showed significant association whereas homozygous genotype AA did not show association with GC risk.

Status of circulating bone turnover markers in elderly osteoporosis/osteopenia patients in comparison with healthy subjects

Abstract Background In the aging individuals, osteoporosis is a major health problem. Due to the various limitations of dual X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) for diagnosis osteoporosis, serum-based biochemical markers have been suggested for the discrimination between the patients and healthy subjects. Objective To investigate the serum levels of bone turnover markers in elderly osteoporosis patients. Methods The serum samples from elderly subjects (osteoporosis (n = 28), osteopenia (n = 28), and healthy ones (n = 28) were collected from Amirkola Health and Ageing Project study. Furthermore, serum levels of bone formation and bone resorption markers as well as estrogen and progesterone were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Kruskal–Wallis test and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis were used for statistical analysis using SPSS. Results Levels of bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) and procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (PINP) differed between groups (P = 0.003 and 0.009, respectively). Furthermore, PINP and B-ALP levels had the best area under the curve, sensitivity, and specificity for the discrimination between patients with osteoporosis and healthy individuals. Conclusion In conditions in which we are not able to assess the bone mineral density by DEXA, analysis of the B-ALP and PINP levels may be a helpful tool.

Cardiac involvement in children with community-acquired pneumonia and respiratory failure

Abstract Background Pneumonia causes significant incidence in children younger than 5 years. Most fatalities are resulted from complications. High rates of cardiac events were detected in adult studies but usually related to underlying diseases. Objective To study the cardiac effects of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with respiratory failure (RF) in healthy children. Methods The prospective cohort study was conducted in children aged 2–59 months with CAP and RF. Cardiac enzyme assessments, chest radiography, electrocardiography, and echocardiography were performed at the admission date and 2 weeks after admission. t-test and chi-square test were used for comparison between first and second investigations, and the statistically significance level was a P <0.05. Results Of the 135 patients, pericardial effusion occurred in 80 (59%), valvular regurgitation in 30 (22%), ST/T changes in 66 (49%), cardiac arrhythmia in 7 (5%), and myocardial injury in 83 (62%). Significant improvement of cardiothoracic-ratio, heart rate, ST/T changes, cardiac arrhythmia, troponin T, myocardial performance, and left-ventricular ejection fraction was demonstrated at second investigations. Three mortality cases exhibited evidence of congestive heart failure (CHF). Conclusion Children with CAP and RF had several cardiac effects even in healthy children. Most cardiac effects were mild and transient. Mortality cases were revealed evidence of congestive heart failure (CHF). Future research should be designed to find out the characteristics and predictors of CHF for early recognition and therapeutic strategy.

Plasma amino acid levels in a cohort of patients in Turkey with classical phenylketonuria

Abstract Background In patients with phenylketonuria, the central nervous system is adversely affected by noncompliance with diet. The levels of phenylalanine and many different amino acids (AAs) in the plasma of patients with phenylketonuria can be measured simultaneously. Objectives To measure the blood plasma levels of neurotransmitter AAs in a cohort of patients in Sanliurfa province, Turkey, with phenylketonuria for use as a support parameter for the follow-up of patients. Methods The phenylketonurics that we followed (n = 100) were divided into 2 groups according to their compliance with their dietary treatment. Plasma AA analysis results of phenylketonurics were compared with those of healthy children in a control group (n = 50). Results In the diet incompliant group (n = 56), the mean levels of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA; 0.96 ± 1.07 μmol/L) and glycine (305.1 ± 105.19 μmol/L) were significantly higher than those in the diet compliant group (n = 44; GABA P = 0.005, glycine P < 0.001) and in the control group (GABA and glycine P < 0.001), whereas the mean levels of glutamic acid (39.01 ± 22.94 μmol/L) and asparagine (39.3 ± 16.89 μmol/L) were lower (P < 0.001) in the diet incompliant group. A positive correlation was observed between the levels of phenylalanine and GABA and glycine. A negative relationship was found between the levels of phenylalanine and glutamic acid and asparagine. Conclusions A relationship exists between the levels of plasma phenylalanine in a cohort of phenylketonurics in Sanliurfa province, Turkey, and the levels of some excitatory and inhibitory AAs. Excitatory and inhibitory AA levels in plasma may be used as support parameters in the follow-up of patients with phenylketonuria.

Epidermal growth factor receptor variants in patients from Myanmar with lung adenocarcinoma

Abstract Background Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) sequence variants in patients from Myanmar have not yet been reported. Objectives To describe the molecular epidemiology of EGFR variants in patients from Myanmar with lung adenocarcinoma. Methods Histological diagnosis and categorization of biopsies collected from 66 patients (28–78 years) with lung cancer was conducted using a panel of antibodies including those to: TTF1, P40, synaptophysin, CK7, and napsin-A. Samples from patients with confirmed adenocarcinoma were tested for EGFR variants using a cobas EGFR Mutation Test kit and cobas z 480 System (Roche). We conducted a univariate analysis of categorical factors using a χ2 or Fisher exact test. Results Histological types were adenocarcinoma (61%, 40/66), squamous cell carcinoma (24%, 16/66), neuroendocrine carcinoma (9%, 6/66), undifferentiated carcinoma (2%, 1/66), adenosquamous carcinoma (2%, 1/66), small cell anaplastic carcinoma (2%, 1/66), and pleomorphic sarcoma (2%, 1/66). EGFR variants were detected in 15 of 40 (38%) cases of adenocarcinoma. Among them, 6 patients (40%) had an exon 19 deletion, another 6 (40%) had exon 21 substitutions, 1 (7%) had exon 20 insertion S768I, and 2 (13%) had compound variations (1 of exon 21 L858R and exon 18 G719X, and 1 of exon 20 S768I and exon 18 G719X). Although limited by small sample size, no significant association was found between the variants and factors including family cancer history, age group, sex, ethnicity, or occupation. However, there was a strong significant association between never-smokers and EGFR variants (P = 0.008). Conclusion Knowledge of EGFR variants in patients from Myanmar is encouraging for their effective cancer treatment.