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Investigation of the impact behavior when using single and double layers of geosynthetics on buried pipe structures

In this study the behavior of buried pipes under impact loading was investigated by forming protective layers with geosynthetics in various combinations in single and double layers. For this purpose, experiments were performed using a HDPE pipe with a 160 mm outer diameter, which is frequently used in the laboratory. In the experiments, Geocell, Geogrid, Geotextile, and Geonet protective layers at a depth of 120 mm were tested by laying Geosynthetic in single and double layers and then tested under the effects of impact loading by using free-weight dropping test apparatus. In the experimental study, the protective layers' energy absorption capacities were calculated by using acceleration measurements over the pipe and then evaluated together with their costs. In the experiments with a single layer Geosynthetic as a protective layer, Geonet's most successful protection structure was a 72.9 % acceleration-damping capacity. In the experiments with the combination of double-layer reinforcement elements, the most successful performance with 88.0 %, in terms of acceleration damping capacity, was obtained from Geocell and Geonet's combination with a thickness of 1 mm at a depth of 50 mm. When all the experiments with single- and double-layer Geosynthetic protective elements were evaluated as an acceleration damping ratio per unit cost, it was found that the optimum application was achieved when using a single-layer Geogrid.

Threshold silt content dependency on particle morphology (shape and size) of granular materials: review with new evidence

The threshold silt content is well known as a key parameter affecting the mechanical response of binary granular assemblies considering particle characteristics (size and shape). In this context, the threshold silt content (TSC) is determined from different laboratory tests based on packing density response (emax and emin versus silt content «Sc») and theoretical approaches proposed by several researchers in the specialized published literature using the characteristics of host sand and silt [emax(sand), emin(sand) , emax(silt) , emin(silt) , Gs , Gf and x]. The analysis of the recorded data indicates that the TSC derived from the (emax) curve appears more reliable than that obtained from the (emin) one. Moreover, it is found that the proposed analytical methods are suitable to quantify the threshold silt content (TSC) than that determined experimentally using the packing density (emax and emin). In addition, the test results show that the new introduced ratios [(D50s×As)/(D50f×Af)] and [(Cus×As)/(Cuf×Af)] determined based on particle characteristics (shape and size) appear as appropriate parameters for predicting the threshold silt content (TSC) of sand-silt mixture of the compiled data from the published literature as well as that of the present research related to Chlef sand, Fontainebleau sand and Hostun sand mixed with Chlef silt.

Diametric splitting tests on unsaturated expansive soil with different dry densities based on particle image velocimetry technique

There is a close relationship between tensile strength of soil and crack development, but the tensile stress-strain in full failure process is rarely studied because challenges exist in accurately measuring shear strain using traditional methods. In this paper, we employed a newly developed diametric splitting testing apparatus and particle image velocimetry (PIV) system to study the tensile strength of compacted unsaturated expansive soil with different water contents and initial dry densities. Soil water characteristic curves of compacted expansive soil with different initial dry densities were determined using the filter paper method. Test results show that the tensile strength increases first and then decreases with increasing water content, and there is a critical water content for the peak load vs. water content curve. The diametric splitting test process can be divided into four stages on the basis of the plotted load-displacement curves: a stress contact adjustment stage (I); stress approximately linear increasing stage (II); tensile failure stage (III); and residual stage (IV). Under the same water content, the angle between the major directions of the displacement vector and the major crack decreases with increasing the dry density, especially when the fissure appears. Using the particle image velocimetry technique, the displacement and strain during the test process recorded is helpful for better understanding the soil failure mechanism.

Investigation of the end bearing load in pile group model in dry soil under horizontal excitation

A series of 94 laboratory tests were conducted to measure the response of pile foundation when subjected to dynamic loads. Eight tests were conducted on single pile in dry soil at relative density 30 % (loose) and 50 % (medium); 66 tests on group of piles with different spacings and patterns. All tests were carried out under operating frequencies 0.5, 1 and 2 Hz under horizontal shaking. All tests were achieved with one embedment ratio (L/d = 30). These tests were grouped in three different numbers of piles; 2 piles in row and line patterns, 3 piles and 4 piles; and three pile spacing ratios (s/d = 3, 4 and 5). The results of dry soil indicating the mechanism of dynamic response of piles and soil subjected to dynamic horizontal shaking include the variation and distribution of acceleration with time in different states of soil in addition to the vertical and horizontal displacements, end-bearing load, peak acceleration and the peak velocity of foundation. It was concluded that for a dry soil bed, the acceleration amplitudes increase with frequency for both soil relative densities (loose and medium) and different pile patterns (number; single or group and different spacing ratios s/d). The maximum acceleration in the foundation is lower than in the soil bed for all operating shaking frequencies, pile spacing ratios and soil states. The decreasing of the maximum acceleration recorded in the foundation as compared to that in the soil bed is between 10-100 % for loose and medium state of soil, and the decrease in loose state is more than in medium state. This means that there is damping effect or attenuation of vibration waves. The amplitudes of recorded acceleration in the pile cap are much higher than in the soil bed for single pile and pile group with different pile spacing ratios, also these amplitudes are increasing with increase of shaking frequency and relative density of the soil.