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Living without Beth and Craig: Definitions and Interpolants in Description and Modal Logics with Nominals and Role Inclusions

The Craig interpolation property (CIP) states that an interpolant for an implication exists iff it is valid. The projective Beth definability property (PBDP) states that an explicit definition exists iff a formula stating implicit definability is valid. Thus, the CIP and PBDP reduce potentially hard existence problems to entailment in the underlying logic. Description (and modal) logics with nominals and/or role inclusions do not enjoy the CIP nor the PBDP, but interpolants and explicit definitions have many applications, in particular in concept learning, ontology engineering, and ontology-based data management. In this article, we show that, even without Beth and Craig, the existence of interpolants and explicit definitions is decidable in description logics with nominals and/or role inclusions such as ๐’œโ„’๐’ž๐’ช, ๐’œโ„’๐’žโ„‹, and ๐’œโ„’๐’žโ„‹๐’ชโ„ and corresponding hybrid modal logics. However, living without Beth and Craig makes these problems harder than entailment: the existence problems become 2ExpTime -complete in the presence of an ontology or the universal modality, and coNExpTime -complete otherwise. We also analyze explicit definition existence if all symbols (except the one that is defined) are admitted in the definition. In this case, the complexity depends on whether one considers individual or concept names. Finally, we consider the problem of computing interpolants and explicit definitions if they exist and turn the complexity upper bound proof into an algorithm computing them, at least for description logics with role inclusions.

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Local Search For Satisfiability Modulo Integer Arithmetic Theories

Satisfiability Modulo Theories (SMT) refers to the problem of deciding the satisfiability of a formula with respect to certain background first-order theories. In this paper, we focus on Satisfiablity Modulo Integer Arithmetic, which is referred to as SMT(IA), including both linear and non-linear integer arithmetic theories. Dominant approaches to SMT rely on calling a CDCL-based SAT solver, either in a lazy or eager flavour. Local search, a competitive approach to solving combinatorial problems including SAT, however, has not been well studied for SMT. We develop the first local-search algorithm for SMT(IA) by directly operating on variables, breaking through the traditional framework. We propose a local-search framework by considering the distinctions between Boolean and integer variables. Moreover, we design a novel operator and scoring functions tailored for integer arithmetic, as well as a two-level operation selection heuristic. Putting these together, we develop a local search SMT(IA) solver called LocalSMT. Experiments are carried out to evaluate LocalSMT on benchmark sets from SMT-LIB. The results show that LocalSMT is competitive and complementary with state-of-the-art SMT solvers, and performs particularly well on those formulae with only integer variables. A simple sequential portfolio with Z3 improves the state-of-the-art on satisfiable benchmark sets from SMT-LIB.

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Parameterized Complexity of Logic-based Argumentation in Schaeferโ€™s Framework

Argumentation is a well-established formalism dealing with conflicting information by generating and comparing arguments. It has been playing a major role in AI for decades. In logic-based argumentation, we explore the internal structure of an argument. Informally, a set of formulas is the support for a given claim if it is consistent, subset-minimal, and implies the claim. In such a case, the pair of the support and the claim together is called an argument. In this article, we study the propositional variants of the following three computational tasks studied in argumentation: ARG (exists a support for a given claim with respect to a given set of formulas), ARG-Check (is a given set a support for a given claim), and ARG-Rel (similarly as ARG plus requiring an additionally given formula to be contained in the support). ARG-Check is complete for the complexity class DP, and the other two problems are known to be complete for the second level of the polynomial hierarchy (Creignou et al. 2014 and Parson et al., 2003) and, accordingly, are highly intractable. Analyzing the reason for this intractability, we perform a two-dimensional classification: First, we consider all possible propositional fragments of the problem within Schaeferโ€™s framework (STOC 1978) and then study different parameterizations for each of the fragments. We identify a list of reasonable structural parameters (size of the claim, support, knowledge base) that are connected to the aforementioned decision problems. Eventually, we thoroughly draw a fine border of parameterized intractability for each of the problems showing where the problems are fixed-parameter tractable and when this exactly stops. Surprisingly, several cases are of very high intractability (para-NP and beyond).

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Faster Property Testers in a Variation of the Bounded Degree Model

Property testing algorithms are highly efficient algorithms that come with probabilistic accuracy guarantees. For a property P , the goal is to distinguish inputs that have P from those that are far from having P with high probability correctly, by querying only a small number of local parts of the input. In property testing on graphs, the distance is measured by the number of edge modifications (additions or deletions) that are necessary to transform a graph into one with property P . Much research has focused on the query complexity of such algorithms, i. e., the number of queries the algorithm makes to the input, but in view of applications, the running time of the algorithm is equally relevant. In (Adler, Harwath, STACS 2018), a natural extension of the bounded degree graph model of property testing to relational databases of bounded degree was introduced, and it was shown that on databases of bounded degree and bounded tree-width, every property that is expressible in monadic second-order logic with counting (CMSO) is testable with constant query complexity and sublinear running time. It remains open whether this can be improved to constant running time. In this article we introduce a new model, which is based on the bounded degree model, but the distance measure allows both edge (tuple) modifications and vertex (element) modifications. We show that every property that is testable in the classical model is testable in our model with the same query complexity and running time, but the converse is not true. Our main theorem shows that on databases of bounded degree and bounded tree-width, every property that is expressible in CMSO is testable with constant query complexity and constant running time in the new model. Our proof methods include the semilinearity of the neighborhood histograms of databases having the property and a result by Alon (Proposition 19.10 in Lovรกsz, Large networks and graph limits, 2012) that states that for every bounded degree graph \(\mathcal {G}\) there exists a constant size graph \(\mathcal {H}\) that has a similar neighborhood distribution to  \(\mathcal {G}\) . It can be derived from a result in (Benjamini et al., Advances in Mathematics 2010) that hyperfinite hereditary properties are testable with constant query complexity and constant running time in the classical model (and hence in the new model). Using our methods, we give an alternative proof that hyperfinite hereditary properties are testable with constant query complexity and constant running time in the new model. We argue that our model is natural and our meta-theorem showing constant-time CMSO testability supports this.

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