Following the work of Day & Hawthorne [Acta Cryst. (2022), A78, 212-233] and Day et al. [Acta Cryst. (2024), A80, 258-281], the program GraphT-T has been developed to embed graphical representations of observed and hypothetical chains of (SiO4)4- tetrahedra into 2D and 3D Euclidean space. During embedding, the distance between linked vertices (T-T distances) and the distance between unlinked vertices (T...T separations) in the resultant unit-distance graph are restrained to the average observed distance between linked Si tetrahedra (3.06Â±0.15 Ã…) and the minimum separation between unlinked vertices is restrained to be equal to or greater than the minimum distance between unlinked Si tetrahedra (3.713 Ã…) in silicate minerals. The notional interactions between vertices are described by a 3D spring-force algorithm in which the attractive forces between linked vertices behave according to Hooke's law and the repulsive forces between unlinked vertices behave according to Coulomb's law. Embedding parameters (i.e. spring coefficient, k, and Coulomb's constant, K) are iteratively refined during embedding to determine if it is possible to embed a given graph to produce a unit-distance graph with T-T distances and T...T separations that are compatible with the observed T-T distances and T...T separations in crystal structures. The resultant unit-distance graphs are denoted as compatible and may form crystal structures if and only if all distances between linked vertices (T-T distances) agree with the average observed distance between linked Si tetrahedra (3.06Â±0.15 Ã…) and the minimum separation between unlinked vertices is equal to or greater than the minimum distance between unlinked Si tetrahedra (3.713 Ã…) in silicate minerals. If the unit-distance graph does not satisfy these conditions, it is considered incompatible and the corresponding chain of tetrahedra is unlikely to form crystal structures. Using GraphT-T, Day et al. [Acta Cryst. (2024), A80, 258-281] have shown that several topological properties of chain graphs influence the flexibility (and rigidity) of the corresponding chains of Si tetrahedra and may explain why particular compatible chain arrangements (and the minerals in which they occur) are more common than others and/or why incompatible chain arrangements do not occur in crystals despite being topologically possible.

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