ObjectiveTo provide a critical overview of the effect of various orthodontic and/or dentofacial orthopedic interventions on three-dimensional volumetric changes in the upper airway.Materials and methodsFour databases were searched for clinical studies concerning 3D volumetric assessments based on CBCT before and after orthodontics interventions. The quality of the studies was assessed using the quality assessment tool of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute. After the use of inclusion and exclusion criteria, the pre-and post-treatment volumes were used to visualize the effect of various orthodontics interventions.ResultsA total of 48 studies were included in this review and none of which were RCTs. The quality of all included studies was assessed as medium. Overall, there is a tendency for an increase in airway volumes after various orthodontic interventions, except for studies concerning extraction therapy with fixed appliances in adults, in which both increases and decreases in airway volumes have been reported.ConclusionOrthodontic treatment by growth modification and non-extraction therapy with fixed appliances, regardless of the malocclusion, generally showed positive effects on the airway volume. Orthodontic treatment in combination with extractions does not provide an unambiguous insight. A consensus on the methodology of the airway measurement and nomenclature is urgently needed in order to gain insight into the effect of different interventions on three-dimensional airway changes.Clinical relevanceVarious orthodontic treatments do not negatively influence the upper airway volume. However, extraction therapy in adults should be chosen with caution, especially in subjects belonging to a group susceptible to airway obstruction.

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