Overactive bladder is treated mainly with behavioral and drug therapy, and symptoms of urinary frequency and incontinence are challenging to eliminate. There is thus a continuous unmet need for new drugs with a substitution effect mechanism. It not known whether vitamin D deficiency can lead to overactive bladder or urinary incontinence or whether vitamin D supplementation alleviates bladder symptoms. This comprehensive systematic review with meta-analysis was conducted to determine whether overactive bladder is associated with vitamin D deficiency. The PubMed and Cochrane Library databases were searched systematically up to July 3, 2022. Initially, 706 articles were identified in the literature search, of which 13 were included in the systematic review: 4 randomized controlled trials, 3 cohort studies, 3 cross-sectional studies, and 3 case-control studies. An increased risk of overactive bladder and urinary incontinence was observed with vitamin D deficiency (odds ratio [OR] = 4.46; 95%CI, 1.03-19.33; P = 0.046 and OR = 1.30; 95%CI, 1.01-1.66; P = 0.036, respectively). Vitamin D levels were relatively low in patients with overactive bladder or urinary incontinence (SMD = -0.33; 95%CI, -0.61 to -0.06, P = 0.019). On the basis of existing data, the risk of urinary incontinence was reduced by 66% after vitamin D supplementation (OR = 0.34; 95%CI, 0.18-0.66; P = 0.001). Egger test was conducted to assess publication bias, and the results were tested for robustness using a sensitivity analysis. Vitamin D deficiency increases the risk of overactive bladder and urinary incontinence, and vitamin D supplementation reduces the risk of urinary incontinence. The development of new strategies to prevent or alleviate bladder symptoms is crucial. Vitamin D supplementation may be gaining recognition as an effective strategy for prevention or alleviation of bladder symptoms such as overactive bladder and incontinence. PROSPERO registration no. CRD42022351443.

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