Abstract Connectivity affects species demography, (meta)population dynamics, evolution, phylogeny and biogeography. Various methodological approaches are applied to measure connectivity. Biophysical modelling can explore systematically the influence of atmospheric, oceanic and ecological forcing, while genetics measures connectivity patterns within the sampling strategy limit. In the Pacific Ocean pearl farming lagoons, the activity relies on spat collecting of the black lipped pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera occurring after the larval dispersal phase, which follows spawning from wild or farmed populations. Biophysical 3D modelling and genomic studies have both separately brought insights on within-lagoon connectivity and on the origin of spats. Here, we combined previous genetics results with new realistic biophysical modelling scenarios to elucidate connectivity in Ahe Atoll lagoon. When combined, we identified the weather sequence likely explaining the realized connectivity observations. We discuss the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of combining these two approaches considering specific pearl farming demographic connectivity questions.

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