668 BOOK REVIEWS first conclusion on the far side of an unbridged gap. Excerpt XLI which condenses the final book of Cahier Five should have been expanded or omitted. Some English-language bibliography and an index would have enhanced the value of this excellent book. J. PATOUT BuRNS, S. J. Regis CoUege Willowdale, Ontario, Canada Twentieth Century Philosophy. By BERNARD DELFGAAUW. Albany, N.Y.: Magi Books, 1969. Pp. 172, $4.95. Definitive critique or estimation of a study which claims so much territory for itself on the basis of so brief a treatment would be foolhardy. Delfgaauw's points are quickly made and, as one would hope, all judgments are pre-modified when offered. This is a well-done translation, by N. D. Smith of the fourth Dutch edition of De Wijsbegeerte van de 20e Eeuw written by a professor of philosophy at Groningen whose historical and scientific studies are gaining attention here. So far, this interest has resulted in translations of his profiles of Marx and de Chardin, his research on the problem of evolution, and a single volume survey of ancient and medieval philosophy. Delfgaauw's specialty, then, is synthesis. Rather than bicker over what he does not cover, let us attempt to render the tone and range of the present work best described as an essay on recent currents exclusive of the language-analysis strain. Contemporary philosophy from the Delfgaauw viewpoint has moved away from that of the last century by its fresh encounters with science and theology. It is newly conscious of a responsibility towards the world and listens in respectful posture to art :md literature. It is no longer " a philosophy that believes it can understand everything " but rathel' " a speculation that attempts to penetrate as deeply as possible a reality which, in the last resort, it is incapable of grasping." (p. Q7) The reasons for this situation are outlined in Part I as stemming from a tension between modern man's notion that reality is always largely determined by the structures science gives it and by an awareness-paradoxically causing feelings of both freedom and fear-that he himself is not determined by such factors. Delfgaauw elaborates on this tension through consideration of biological and psychological advances and our deepening appreciation of religious consciousness. Part II discusses four "answers " to this tension: neo-Thomism, twentieth-century Kantian and Hegelian thought, and l\farxism. The author does not underestimate the difficulty of isolating the actual responses to the contemporary problem within these tendencies. At bottom, the BOOK REVIEWS 669 delineation is hampered by the anterior question of what thinkers evidently working within these distinct traditions do in fact share with one another. This dilemma in demarcation is clearly observed among the nebulous grouping known as neo-Thomists. What, after all, is a neo-Thomist and how does he perceive his relationship first to Aquinas and second to contemporary thought? Does such a one attempt to speak or to listen, and if both, then in what proportion? The problematic is well presented, although Delfgaauw's own ...-iew surfaces in his observation that the movement " back " to Aquinas " is coming closer to achieving its original aim as it lends to disappear as a school." (p. 41) With regard to the .Marburg and Baden schools of Kantian thought Delfgaauw sees Windelband's dictum: " Understanding Kant means going beyond him " as their shared conviction of how that thinker is to be brought into the present century. The two sub-schools differ in emphasis on the unity of thought as an objective. While Marburgers saw such logical unity behyccn mind and science that pure mathematics conjoined with natural science emerges as science par excellence, the Baden school placed central value on thought, harkening back to Lotze, and subjugated natural science to the humanities. The intricacies of what became of Hegel are well handled in this Part, too, and it is the British and Italian manifestations of his philosophy that receive chief attention. According to the author, the basic paradox of ·Marxist thought, the fourth of the tradition's responses to the modern tension, is the intrinsic opposition of politics to philosophy. When the philosopher convinces society to accept his view...

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