Myelodysplastic syndrome is associated with the development of autoinflammatory conditions, such as recurrent fever, polymyalgia, arthralgia, and erythema. Trisomy 8 is a common chromosomal abnormality in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome. Myelodysplastic syndrome with trisomy 8 involves autoinflammatory conditions, especially Behçet's disease-like symptoms with intestinal mucosal damage. MEFV variants, particularly those in exon 10, are pathogenic in familial Mediterranean fever, the most common autoinflammatory disease, presenting typical symptoms such as periodic fever and pleuritis/pericarditis/peritonitis. MEFV variants outside exon 10 are common in Japanese patients with familial Mediterranean fever and are associated with atypical symptoms, including myalgia and erythema. MEFV variants in myelodysplastic syndrome with trisomy 8 have rarely been investigated, although myelodysplastic syndrome with trisomy 8 might develop autoinflammatory conditions similar to those in familial Mediterranean fever. We encountered a 67-year-old man who had myelodysplastic syndrome with trisomy 8 and multiple MEFV variants outside exon 10. He presented with periodic fever, as well as chest/abdominal pain, myalgia, and erythema, although the symptoms did not fulfill the diagnostic criteria of familial Mediterranean fever. We discussed the possibility that these symptoms are modified by MEFV variants outside exon 10 in myelodysplastic syndrome with trisomy 8.

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