Secondary metabolites of cyanobacterial blooms have caused serious risks to aquatic animals. The immune system is an important barrier for fish against pollutants in aquatic systems. The immunetoxic mechanism of the exudates of Microcystis aeruginosa (MaE) on fish was lacking due to the complex components of MaE. In this project, Sinocyclocheilus grahami was used as the model to study the immunotoxic effects of MaE and PHS (one of the main components of the MaE) in fish. The immunosuppression effects of MaE are mainly in, decreased head-kindey index, damaged tissue structure of head-kidney and downregulated NF-κB, IL-1β. PHS induce immunostimulation via, increasing spleen index, apparently increasing leucocytes, increasing the IgM and lysozyme levels in serum and skin mucus, upregulating protease in skin mucus, increasing pro-immunologic factors (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, TNF-α and NF-κB), probably activating the TLRs/NF-κB, MAPK, FoxO1 and PPARγ signaling pathways. Therefore, our research identified potential data gaps that how the exudates of cyanobacteria induces immunostimulation and immunosuppression from immune organs level to skin mucus to blood cells to inflammatory factors to potential molecular initiating event of MaE and PHS. Further research is needed to obtain a deeper view of the molecular mechanisms involved in MaE and PHS immunotoxicity and its consequences in long-time exposures.

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