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Strategies in synthetic design and structure–activity relationship studies of novel heterocyclic scaffolds as aldose reductase‐2 inhibitors

Publication Date Sep 20, 2022

Abstract

Heterocyclic scaffolds of natural as well as synthetic origin provide almost all categories of drugs exhibiting a wide range of pharmacological activities, such as antibiotics, antidiabetic and anticancer agents, and so on. Under normal homeostasis, aldose reductase 2 (ALR2) regulates vital metabolic functions; however, in pathological conditions like diabetes, ALR2 is unable to function and leads to secondary diabetic complications. ALR2 inhibitors are a novel target for the treatment of retinopathy (cataract) influenced by diabetes. Epalrestat (stat), an ALR2 inhibitor, is the only drug candidate that was approved in the last four decades; the other drugs from the stat class were retracted after clinical trial studies due to untoward iatrogenic effects. The present studysummarizes the recent development (2014 and onwards) of this pharmacologically active ALR2 heterocyclic scaffold and illustrates the rationale behind the design, structure-activity relationships, and biological studies performed on these molecules. The aim of the current review is to pave a straight path for medicinal chemists and chemical biologists, and, in general, to the drug discovery scientists to facilitate the synthesis and development of novel ALR2 inhibitors that may serve as lead molecules for the treatment of diseases related to the ALR2 enzyme.

Concepts

Heterocyclic Scaffolds Aldose Reductase Synthetic Design Normal Homeostasis Structure Activity Relationship Pathological Conditions Anticancer Agents Active Scaffold Drug Candidate Development Of Inhibitors

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