Patients with trisomy 8 consistently present with myeloid neoplasms and/or auto-inflammatory syndrome. A possible link between myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) with trisomy 8 (+8-MDS) and inflammatory disorders is well recognized, several cases having been reported. However, inflammatory disorders in patients without MDS have been largely overlooked. Generally, Behçet's disease is the most common type in +8-MDS. However, inflammatory disorders with pulmonary involvement are less frequent, and no effective treatment has been established. A 27-year-old man with recurrent fever, fatigue for > 2 mo, and unconsciousness for 1 day was admitted to our emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of severe pneumonia. Vancomycin and imipenem were administered and sputum collected for metagenomic next-generation sequencing. Epstein-Barr virus and Mycobacterium kansasii were detected. Additionally, chromosomal analysis showed duplications on chromosome 8. Two days later, repeat metagenomic next-generation sequencing was performed with blood culture. Cordyceps portugal, M. kansasii, and Candida portugal were detected, and duplications on chromosome 8 confirmed. Suspecting hematological disease, we aspirated a bone marrow sample from the iliac spine, examination of which showed evidence of infection. We added fluconazole as further antibiotic therapy. Seven days later, the patient's condition had not improved, prompting addition of methylprednisolone as an anti-inflammatory agent. Fortunately, this treatment was effective and the patient eventually recovered. Severe inflammatory disorders with pulmonary involvement can occur in patients with trisomy 8. Methylprednisolone may be an effective treatment.

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