Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated invasive pulmonary aspergillosis presents a diagnostic challenge due to its non-specific clinical/ imaging features, as well as the fact that the proposed clinically diagnostic algorithms do not necessarily apply to COVID-19 patients. In addition, Fusarium spp. is a rare cause of opportunistic life-threatening fungal infections. Disseminated Fusarium infection in an immunocompromised host is intractable, with a high likelihood of resulting mortality. To our knowledge, this is the first case of secondary pulmonary infection by Fusarium solani (F. solani) and Aspergillus niger (A. niger) during systemic steroid treatment for COVID-19. A 62-year-old male was transported to our hospital by ambulance with a complaint of fever and dyspnea. We established a diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia, complicated with COVID-19 and septic shock, together with acute renal failure. He was admitted to the intensive care unit, to be treated with piperacillin/tazobactam, vancomycin, and 6.6 mg per day of dexamethasone sodium phosphate, along with noradrenaline as a vasopressor, ventilator management, and continuous hemodiafiltration. His condition improved, and we finished the vasopressor on the fifth hospital day. We administered dexamethasone for ten days, and finished the course of treatment. On the eleventh day, patient respiratory deterioration was observed, and a computed tomography scan showed an exacerbation of bilateral ground-glass-opacity-like consolidation, together with newly appeared cavitary lesions in the lung. we changed antibiotics to meropenem plus vancomycin. In addition, a fungal infection was considered as a possibility based on microscopic findings of sputum, and we began coadministration of voriconazole. However, the pneumonia worsened, and the patient died on the seventeenth day of illness. Later, F. solani and A. niger were identified from sputum collected on the twelfth day. It was believed that he developed a cell-mediated immune deficiency during COVID-19 treatment, which led to the complication of pneumonia caused by the above-mentioned fungi, contributing to his death. Because early initiation of intense antifungal therapy offers the best chance for survival in pulmonary fusariosis, computed tomography scans and appropriate microbiologic investigations should be obtained for severely immunocompromised patients.

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