Background: Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is an immune-mediated disorder following heparin therapy presenting with thrombocytopenia and associated arterial or/and venous thrombosis (heparin induced thrombocytopenia with thrombosis–HITT). Unrecognised HIT can lead to severe complications like limb amputation and death. Case report: We report a case of a patient who presented with HIT-associated recurrent lower limb arterial thrombotic occlusions and popliteal venous thrombosis 29 days after coronary bypass graf surgery. The patient underwent urgent thrombectomy of superfcial femoral, popliteal and posterior tibial artery. Because of recurrent thrombotic occlusions of lower limb arteries three surgical revisions were performed. Te platelet count decreased from 124 × 109/l to 53 × 109/l on the fifth day after the first intervention. After clinical suspicion of HIT, heparin was discontinued and fondaparinux was started. Arterial thrombosis did not recur and the patient recovered without consequences. Conclusions: HIT occurs in 1–3 % of patients after cardiac surgery. Strict following of international guidelines regarding the frequency of platelet count monitoring, assessing probability for HIT and laboratory testing is mandatory in order not to miss the diagnosis of HIT. HIT can manifest clinically several days after the first exposure to heparin. If a patient presents with acute thrombosis and thrombocytopenia, HITT should be suspected. Postoperative HIT is associated with higher morbidity and mortality. Early recognition is crucial to prevent severe complications and death.

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