SummaryReal-time confocal and super-resolution imaging reveals membrane dynamics of exo- and endocytosis, including hemi-fusion, fusion pore opening, expansion, constriction, closure (kiss-and-run), fused-vesicle shrinking (shrink fusion), and flat membrane transition to vesicles via intermediate Λ- and Ω-shape structures. Here, we describe a protocol for imaging these membrane dynamics, including primary culture of bovine adrenal chromaffin cells, fluorescent probe application, patch-clamp to deliver depolarization and evoke exo- and endocytosis, electron microscopy (EM), and real-time confocal and stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy.For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Zhao et al. (2016), Shin et al. (2018), and Shin et al. (2021).

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