Background Extragastrointestinal stromal tumors (EGISTs) are rare mesenchymal neoplasms which develop in the retroperitoneum, mesentery, and omentum, lacking continuity to the stomach or intestines. Methods Authors hereby present a female patient with a large heterogenous abdominal mass as a case of an omental EGIST. Results A 46-year-old woman was referred to our hospital due to an insidious enlargement and colicky pain in the right iliac fossa. Abdominal palpation revealed a voluminous, freely mobile, and non-pulsatile mesoabdominal bulge expanding to the hypogastrium. On exploratory midline laparotomy the tumor presented densely fused to the greater omentum, not connected to the stomach, without gross involvement of adjacent structures. The large mass was completely excised after adequate mobilization. Immunohistochemical techniques showed strong and diffuse expression of WT1, actin and DOG-1, as well as multifocal c-KIT marking. Mutational study concluded a double mutation of KIT exon 9 and a mutation of PDGFRA exon 18. The patient was submitted to adjuvant treatment with imatinib mesylate 800 mg/day. Conclusion Despite an extremely diverse presentation, omental EGISTs often remain clinically silent for a long time having enough space to grow before becoming symptomatic. These tumors have a consistent pattern of metastasis that typically spares lymph nodes unlike epithelial gut neoplasms. Surgery remains the preferred treatment for non-metastatic EGISTs of the greater omentum. It is possible that DOG-1 will supplant KIT as the leading marker in the future. The scarcity of knowledge on omental EGISTs implies a close monitoring of these patients to detect local relapse or distant metastasis.

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