Medical Care | VOL. 60
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Post–Affordable Care Act Improvements in Cancer Stage Among Ohio Medicaid Beneficiaries Resulted From an Increase in Stable Coverage

Publication Date Sep 13, 2022

Abstract

The mechanisms underlying improvements in early-stage cancer at diagnosis following Medicaid expansion remain unknown. We hypothesized that Medicaid expansion allowed for low-income adults to enroll in Medicaid before cancer diagnosis, thus increasing the number of stably-enrolled relative to those who enroll in Medicaid only after diagnosis (emergently-enrolled). Using data from the 2011-2017 Ohio Cancer Incidence Surveillance System and Medicaid enrollment files, we identified individuals diagnosed with incident invasive breast (n=4850), cervical (n=1023), and colorectal (n=3363) cancer. We conducted causal mediation analysis to estimate the direct effect of pre- (vs. post-) expansion on being diagnosed with early-stage (-vs. regional-stage and distant-stage) disease, and indirect (mediation) effect through being in the stably- (vs. emergently-) enrolled group, controlling for individual-level and area-level characteristics. The percentage of stably-enrolled patients increased from 63.3% to 73.9% post-expansion, while that of the emergently-enrolled decreased from 36.7% to 26.1%. The percentage of patients with early-stage diagnosis remained 1.3-2.9 times higher among the stably-than the emergently-enrolled group, both pre-expansion and post-expansion. Results from the causal mediation analysis showed that there was an indirect effect of Medicaid expansion through being in the stably- (vs. emergently-) enrolled group [risk ratios with 95% confidence interval: 1.018 (1.010-1.027) for breast cancer, 1.115 (1.064-1.167) for c...

Concepts

Stable Coverage Ohio Cancer Incidence Surveillance System Medicaid Expansion Medicaid Enrollment Files Incident Invasive Breast Causal Mediation Analysis Area-level Characteristics Cancer Stage Incident Invasive Breast Cancer Causal Analysis

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