Abstract

During cataract surgery, diseased lenses in the eye are surgically removed and replaced with polymeric artificial intraocular lenses (IOLs). Patients can experience a complication called posterior capsular opacification (PCO) that is corrected through the removal of part of the posterior capsule using a neodymium: yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd-YAG) laser to restore the optical path. These interventions have increased costs and can damage the retina and the IOL. PCO develops when lens epithelial cells (LECs) proliferate, migrate, and undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Neutrophils involved in the immune response triggered during implantation impact LEC behavior and produce damaging neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). In this research, poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) -based disks were synthesized with varying amounts of comonomer (HEMA with 0, 2, and 12 mol% MMA) and functionalized with carboxyl and amine groups, yielding nine different hydrogels. Material and chemical properties of the disks were characterized, and neutrophil-like HL60 cells and B3 LECs were incubated with the disks. HL60 cell behavior was more strongly influenced by chemical functionalization than by mechanical properties with increases in adherence and NET accumulation. Conversely, the behavior and viability of B3 LECs were more strongly influenced by mechanical properties with increases in cell adhesion and α-SMA expression with increasing compressive moduli. Interestingly, B3 LECs had decreased viability and increased α-SMA expression when cultured on PHEMA2 disks pretreated with isolated NETs. Critical to the understanding of PCO and its prevention are both surface chemistry and mechanics as well as the inflammatory response.

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